What is the chemical formula for phosphorus disulfide? How do you …

What is the chemical formula for phosphorus disulfide? How do you …


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Phosphorus sulfide

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Phosphorus sulfides comprise a family of inorganic compounds containing only phosphorus and sulfur . These compounds have the formula P4Sx with x ≤ 10. Two are of commercial significance, phosphorus pentasulfide (P4S10), which is made on a kiloton scale for the production of other organosulfur compounds, and phosphorus sesquisulfide (P4S3), used in the production of “strike anywhere matches” .

There are several other phosphorus sulfides in addition to P4S3 and P4S10. Six of these phosphorus sulfides exist as isomers : P4S4, P4S5, P4S6, P4S7, P4S8, and P4S9. These isomers are distinguished by Greek letter prefixes. The prefix is based on the order of the discovery of the isomers, not their structure. [1] All known molecular phosphorus sulfides contain a tetrahedral array of four phosphorus atoms. [2] P4S2 is also known but is unstable above −30 °C. [3]

Phosphorus sulfides that exist in isomeric forms

Contents

  • 1 Preparation
    • 1.1 P4S3
    • 1.2 P4S4
    • 1.3 P4S5
    • 1.4 P4S6
    • 1.5 P4S7
    • 1.6 P4S9
    • 1.7 P4S10
  • 2 References

Preparation[ edit ]

The main method for preparing these compounds is thermolysis of mixtures of phosphorus and sulfur. The product distributions can be analyzed by 31P NMR spectroscopy . More selective syntheses entail (i) desulfurization, e.g. using triphenylphosphine and, complementarily, (ii) sulfidation using triphenylarsine sulfide. [4] [5]

P4S3[ edit ]

Phosphorus sesquisulfide is prepared by treating red phosphorus with sulfur above 450 K, [6] followed by careful recrystallization with carbon disulfide and benzene . An alternative method involves the controlled fusion of white phosphorus with sulfur in an inert, non-flammable solvent. [7]

P4S4[ edit ]

The α- and β- forms of P4S4 can be prepared by treating the corresponding isomers of P4S3I2 with ((CH3)3Sn)2S: [6]

Preparation scheme of P4S4 isomeric forms.png

P4S3I2 can be synthesized by the reaction of stoichiometric amounts of phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine.

P4S5[ edit ]

P4S5 can be prepared by treating stoichiometric amounts of P4S3 with sulfur in carbon disulfide solution, in the presence of light and a catalytic amount of iodine . [8] The respective product distribution is then analyzed by using 31P NMR spectroscopy .

In particular, α-P4S5 can be easily made by the photochemical reaction of P4S10 with red phosphorus. [6] Note that P4S5 is unstable when heated, tending to disproportionate to P4S3 and P4S7 before reaching its melting point. [9]

P4S6[ edit ]

P4S6 can be made by abstracting a sulfur atom from P4S7 using triphenylphosphine : [6]

P4S7 + Ph 3P → P4S6 + Ph3PS

The two new polymorphs δ-P4S6 and ε-P4S6 can be made by treating α-P4S4 with Ph3SbS in CS2. [10]

P4S7[ edit ]

P4S7 is most conveniently made by direct union of the corresponding elements, and is one of the most easily purified binary phosphorus sulfides. [11]

4 P + 7 S → P4S7

P4S9[ edit ]

P4S9 can be made by two methods. One method involves the heating of P4S3 in excess sulfur. [6] Another
method involves the heating of P4S7 and P4S10 in 1:2 mole ratio, where P4S9 is reversibly formed: [10]

P4S7 + 2 P4S10 ⇌ 3 P4S9

P4S10[ edit ]

P4S10 is one of the most stable phosphorus sulfides. It is most easily made by heating white phosphorus with sulfur above 570 K in an evacuated tube. [12]

P4 + 10 S → P4S10

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ Jason, M. E.; Ngo, T.; Rahman, S. (1997). “Products and Mechanisms in the Oxidation of Phosphorus by Sulfur at Low Temperature”. Inorg. Chem. 36 (12): 2633–2640. doi : 10.1021/ic9614879 .

  2. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN   0-12-352651-5 .
  3. ^ Heal, H. G. The Inorganic Heterocyclic Chemistry of Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Academic Press: London; 1980 ISBN   0-12-335680-6 .
  4. ^ Jason, M. E. (1997). “Transfer of Sulfur from Arsenic and Antimony Sulfides to Phosphorus Sulfides. Rational Syntheses of Several Less-Common P4Sn Species”. Inorg. Chem. 36 (12): 2641–2646. doi : 10.1021/ic9614881 .
  5. ^ Nowottnick, H.; Blachnik, R. (1999). “Zwei neue Phosphorsulfide (Two New Phosphorus Sulfides)”. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie . 625 (12): 1966–1968. doi : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3749(199912)625:12<1966::AID-ZAAC1966>3.0.CO;2-B .
  6. ^ a b c d e Catherine E. Housecroft; Alan G. Sharpe (2008). “Chapter 15: The group 15 elements”. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd Edition. Pearson. p. 484. ISBN   978-0-13-175553-6 .
  7. ^ “Phosphorus trisulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 563.
  8. ^ “Phosphorus pentasulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 565.
  9. ^ A. Earnshaw; Norman Greenwood (2002). “Phosphorus”. Chemistry of the elements, 2nd edition. Butterworth Heinemann. p. 508. ISBN   0750633654 .
  10. ^ a b R. Bruce King (2005). “Phosphorus”. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition. Wiley. p. 3711. ISBN   9780470862100 .
  11. ^ “Phosphorus heptasulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 566.
  12. ^ “Diphosphorus pentasulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 567.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Phosphorus compounds
  • PBr3
  • PBr5
  • PCl3
  • PCl5
  • PF3
  • PF5
  • PI3
  • InP
  • PH3
  • PN
  • P3N5
  • P2O3
  • P2O4
  • P2O5
  • P4S3
  • P4S10
  • AlP
  • Ca3P2
  • Zn3P2
  • CuP2
  • HfP
  • FeP
  • Fe3P
  • BP
  • YP
  • v
  • t
  • e
Sulfides
H2S
H2S2
He
Li2S BeS B2S3 CS2
COS
(NH4)SH OFNe
Na2S
Na2Sx
MgS Al2S3 SiS
SiS2
PxSy SClAr
K2S CaS Sc2S3 TiS2 V CrS
Cr2S3
MnS
MnS2
FeS
Fe3S4
CoS NiS Cu2S
CuS
ZnS GaS
Ga2S3
GeS
GeS2
As2S3
As4S3
SeS2 BrKr
Rb2S SrS Y2S3 ZrS2 NbS2 MoS2 TcRu Rh2S3 PdS Ag2S CdS In2S3 SnS
SnS2
Sb2S3
Sb2S5
TeS2 IXe
Cs2S BaS * HfS2 TaS2 WS2
WS3
ReS2
Re2S7
Os Ir2S3 PtS
PtS2
Au HgS Tl2S PbS
PbS2
Bi2S3 PoAtRn
FrRa**RfDbSgBhHsMtDsRgCnNhFlMcLvTsOg
* La2S3 CeS
Ce2S3
Pr2S3 Nd2S3 Pm2S3 SmS
Sm2S3
Eu2S3 Gd2S3 Tb2S3 Dy2S3 Ho2S3 Er2S3 Tm2S3 Yb2S3 Lu2S3
**Ac ThS2 Pa US2 NpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr

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Categories :

  • Inorganic phosphorus compounds
  • Sulfides

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      Phosphorus sulfide

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      Phosphorus sulfide
      • Introduction

        1. Preparation

          1. P4S3

          2. P4S4

          3. P4S5

          4. P4S6

          5. P4S7

          6. P4S9

          7. P4S10

        2. References

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