What is the chemical formula for phosphorus disulfide? How do you …

What is the chemical formula for phosphorus disulfide? How do you …

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Phosphorus sulfide

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Phosphorus sulfides comprise a family of inorganic compounds containing only phosphorus and sulfur . These compounds have the formula P4Sx with x ≤ 10. Two are of commercial significance, phosphorus pentasulfide (P4S10), which is made on a kiloton scale for the production of other organosulfur compounds, and phosphorus sesquisulfide (P4S3), used in the production of “strike anywhere matches” .

There are several other phosphorus sulfides in addition to P4S3 and P4S10. Six of these phosphorus sulfides exist as isomers : P4S4, P4S5, P4S6, P4S7, P4S8, and P4S9. These isomers are distinguished by Greek letter prefixes. The prefix is based on the order of the discovery of the isomers, not their structure. [1] All known molecular phosphorus sulfides contain a tetrahedral array of four phosphorus atoms. [2] P4S2 is also known but is unstable above −30 °C. [3]

Phosphorus sulfides that exist in isomeric forms


  • 1 Preparation
    • 1.1 P4S3
    • 1.2 P4S4
    • 1.3 P4S5
    • 1.4 P4S6
    • 1.5 P4S7
    • 1.6 P4S9
    • 1.7 P4S10
  • 2 References

Preparation[ edit ]

The main method for preparing these compounds is thermolysis of mixtures of phosphorus and sulfur. The product distributions can be analyzed by 31P NMR spectroscopy . More selective syntheses entail (i) desulfurization, e.g. using triphenylphosphine and, complementarily, (ii) sulfidation using triphenylarsine sulfide. [4] [5]

P4S3[ edit ]

Phosphorus sesquisulfide is prepared by treating red phosphorus with sulfur above 450 K, [6] followed by careful recrystallization with carbon disulfide and benzene . An alternative method involves the controlled fusion of white phosphorus with sulfur in an inert, non-flammable solvent. [7]

P4S4[ edit ]

The α- and β- forms of P4S4 can be prepared by treating the corresponding isomers of P4S3I2 with ((CH3)3Sn)2S: [6]

Preparation scheme of P4S4 isomeric forms.png

P4S3I2 can be synthesized by the reaction of stoichiometric amounts of phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine.

P4S5[ edit ]

P4S5 can be prepared by treating stoichiometric amounts of P4S3 with sulfur in carbon disulfide solution, in the presence of light and a catalytic amount of iodine . [8] The respective product distribution is then analyzed by using 31P NMR spectroscopy .

In particular, α-P4S5 can be easily made by the photochemical reaction of P4S10 with red phosphorus. [6] Note that P4S5 is unstable when heated, tending to disproportionate to P4S3 and P4S7 before reaching its melting point. [9]

P4S6[ edit ]

P4S6 can be made by abstracting a sulfur atom from P4S7 using triphenylphosphine : [6]

P4S7 + Ph 3P → P4S6 + Ph3PS

The two new polymorphs δ-P4S6 and ε-P4S6 can be made by treating α-P4S4 with Ph3SbS in CS2. [10]

P4S7[ edit ]

P4S7 is most conveniently made by direct union of the corresponding elements, and is one of the most easily purified binary phosphorus sulfides. [11]

4 P + 7 S → P4S7

P4S9[ edit ]

P4S9 can be made by two methods. One method involves the heating of P4S3 in excess sulfur. [6] Another
method involves the heating of P4S7 and P4S10 in 1:2 mole ratio, where P4S9 is reversibly formed: [10]

P4S7 + 2 P4S10 ⇌ 3 P4S9

P4S10[ edit ]

P4S10 is one of the most stable phosphorus sulfides. It is most easily made by heating white phosphorus with sulfur above 570 K in an evacuated tube. [12]

P4 + 10 S → P4S10

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ Jason, M. E.; Ngo, T.; Rahman, S. (1997). “Products and Mechanisms in the Oxidation of Phosphorus by Sulfur at Low Temperature”. Inorg. Chem. 36 (12): 2633–2640. doi : 10.1021/ic9614879 .

  2. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN   0-12-352651-5 .
  3. ^ Heal, H. G. The Inorganic Heterocyclic Chemistry of Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Academic Press: London; 1980 ISBN   0-12-335680-6 .
  4. ^ Jason, M. E. (1997). “Transfer of Sulfur from Arsenic and Antimony Sulfides to Phosphorus Sulfides. Rational Syntheses of Several Less-Common P4Sn Species”. Inorg. Chem. 36 (12): 2641–2646. doi : 10.1021/ic9614881 .
  5. ^ Nowottnick, H.; Blachnik, R. (1999). “Zwei neue Phosphorsulfide (Two New Phosphorus Sulfides)”. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie . 625 (12): 1966–1968. doi : 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3749(199912)625:12<1966::AID-ZAAC1966>3.0.CO;2-B .
  6. ^ a b c d e Catherine E. Housecroft; Alan G. Sharpe (2008). “Chapter 15: The group 15 elements”. Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd Edition. Pearson. p. 484. ISBN   978-0-13-175553-6 .
  7. ^ “Phosphorus trisulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 563.
  8. ^ “Phosphorus pentasulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 565.
  9. ^ A. Earnshaw; Norman Greenwood (2002). “Phosphorus”. Chemistry of the elements, 2nd edition. Butterworth Heinemann. p. 508. ISBN   0750633654 .
  10. ^ a b R. Bruce King (2005). “Phosphorus”. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition. Wiley. p. 3711. ISBN   9780470862100 .
  11. ^ “Phosphorus heptasulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 566.
  12. ^ “Diphosphorus pentasulfide” in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 567.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Phosphorus compounds
  • PBr3
  • PBr5
  • PCl3
  • PCl5
  • PF3
  • PF5
  • PI3
  • InP
  • PH3
  • PN
  • P3N5
  • P2O3
  • P2O4
  • P2O5
  • P4S3
  • P4S10
  • AlP
  • Ca3P2
  • Zn3P2
  • CuP2
  • HfP
  • FeP
  • Fe3P
  • BP
  • YP
  • v
  • t
  • e
Li2S BeS B2S3 CS2
MgS Al2S3 SiS
PxSy SClAr
K2S CaS Sc2S3 TiS2 V CrS
CoS NiS Cu2S
SeS2 BrKr
Rb2S SrS Y2S3 ZrS2 NbS2 MoS2 TcRu Rh2S3 PdS Ag2S CdS In2S3 SnS
TeS2 IXe
Cs2S BaS * HfS2 TaS2 WS2
Os Ir2S3 PtS
Au HgS Tl2S PbS
Bi2S3 PoAtRn
* La2S3 CeS
Pr2S3 Nd2S3 Pm2S3 SmS
Eu2S3 Gd2S3 Tb2S3 Dy2S3 Ho2S3 Er2S3 Tm2S3 Yb2S3 Lu2S3
**Ac ThS2 Pa US2 NpPuAmCmBkCfEsFmMdNoLr

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phosphorus_sulfide&oldid=846571080 ”
Categories :

  • Inorganic phosphorus compounds
  • Sulfides

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      Phosphorus sulfide

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      Phosphorus sulfide
      • Introduction

        1. Preparation

          1. P4S3

          2. P4S4

          3. P4S5

          4. P4S6

          5. P4S7

          6. P4S9

          7. P4S10

        2. References

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