Volvox What is the kingdom of volvox? Is it a protista or a plantae? - MywallpapersMobi

Volvox What is the kingdom of volvox? Is it a protista or a plantae?

Volvox

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Volvox
Mikrofoto.de-volvox-4.jpg
Volvox sp.
Scientific classification edit />
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Class: Chlorophyceae
Order: Chlamydomonadales
Family: Volvocaceae
Genus:Volvox
L.
Species

Volvox aureus
Volvox carteri  (V. nagariensis)
Volvox globator
Volvox barberi
Volvox rouseletti
Volvox dissipatrix
Volvox tertius

Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae . It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells. They live in a variety of freshwater habitats, and were first reported by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700. Volvox diverged from unicellular ancestors approximately 200  million years ago. [1]

Contents

  • 1 Description
    • 1.1 Reproduction
  • 2 Habitats
  • 3 History
  • 4 Evolution
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Description[ edit ]

Volvox colony: 1) Chlamydomonas -like cell, 2) Daughter colony, 3) Cytoplasmic bridges, 4) Intercellular gel, 5) Reproductive cell, 6) Somatic cell.

Volvox is a polyphyletic genus in the volvocine green algae clade. [2] Each mature Volvox colony is composed of up to thousands of cells from two differentiated cell types: numerous flagellate somatic cells and a smaller number of germ cells lacking in soma that are embedded in the surface of a hollow sphere or coenobium containing an extracellular matrix [1] made of glycoproteins . [3] Adult somatic cells comprise a single layer with the flagella facing outward. The cells swim in a coordinated fashion, with distinct anterior and posterior poles. The cells have anterior eyespots that enable the colony to swim towards light. The cells of colonies in the more basal Euvolvox clade are interconnected by thin strands of cytoplasm , called protoplasmates. [4] Cell number is specified during development and is dependent on the number of rounds of division. [2]

Reproduction[ edit ]

An asexual colony includes both somatic (vegetative) cells, which do not reproduce, and large, non-motile gonidia in the interior, which produce new colonies through repeated division. In sexual reproduction two types of gametes are produced. Volvox species can be monoecious or dioecious . Male colonies release numerous sperm packets, while in female colonies single cells enlarge to become oogametes, or eggs. [2] [5]

Volvox is facultatively sexual and can reproduce both sexually and asexually. In the lab, asexual reproduction is most commonly observed; the relative frequencies of sexual and asexual reproduction in the wild is unknown. The switch from asexual to sexual reproduction can be triggered by environmental conditions [6] and by the production of a sex-inducing pheromone. [7] Desiccation-resistant diploid zygotes are produced following successful fertilization.

Kirk and Kirk [8] showed that sex-inducing pheromone production can be triggered in somatic cells by a short heat shock given to asexually growing organisms. The induction of sex by heat shock is mediated by oxidative stress that likely also causes oxidative DNA damage. [6] [9] It has been suggested that switching to the sexual pathway is the key to surviving environmental stresses that include heat and drought . [10] Consistent with this idea, the induction of sex involves a signal transduction pathway that is also induced in Volvox by wounding. [10]

Habitats[ edit ]

Volvox is a genus of freshwater algae found in ponds and ditches, even in shallow puddles. [5] According to Charles Joseph Chamberlain , [11]

“The most favorable place to look for it is in the deeper ponds, lagoons , and ditches which receive an abundance of rain water. It has been said that where you find Lemna , you are likely to find Volvox; and it is true that such water is favorable, but the shading is unfavorable. Look where you find Sphagnum , Vaucheria , Alisma , Equisetum fluviatile , Utricularia , Typha , and Chara . Dr. Nieuwland reports that Pandorina , Eudorina and Gonium are commonly found as constituents of the green scum on wallows in fields where pigs are kept. The flagellate, Euglena , is often associated with these forms.”

History[ edit ]

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first reported observations of Volvox in 1700. [12] [13]

After some drawings of Henry Baker (1753), [14] Linnaeus (1758) [15] would describe the genus Volvox, with two species: V. globator and V. chaos. Volvox chaos is an amoeba now known as Chaos sp. [16] [17]

Evolution[ edit ]

Ancestors of Volvox transitioned from single cells to form multicellular colonies at least 200  million years ago, during the Triassic period . [1] [18] An estimate using DNA sequences from about 45 different species of volvocine green algae, including Volvox, suggests that the transition from single cells to undifferentiated multicellular colonies took about 35 million years. [1] [18]

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ a b c d University of Arizona (February 22, 2009). “Single-celled algae took the leap to multicellularity 200 million years ago” . Science Daily .

  2. ^ a b c Kirk, David L. (1998). Volvox: A Search for the Molecular and Genetic Origins of Multicellularity and Cellular Differentiation. Cambridge University Press . ISBN   978-0-521-45207-6 .
  3. ^ Hallmann, A. (2003). “Extracellular matrix and sex-inducing pheromone in Volvox“. International Review of Cytology . International Review of Cytology. 227: 131–182. doi : 10.1016/S0074-7696(03)01009-X . ISBN   978-0-12-364631-6 .
  4. ^ Ikushima, N.; Maruyama, S. (1968). “The protoplasmic connection in Volvox“. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology . 15 (1): 136–140. doi : 10.1111/j.1550-7408.1968.tb02098.x .
  5. ^ a b Powers, J. H. (1908). “Further studies in Volvox, with descriptions of three new species”. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society . 28: 141–175. doi : 10.2307/3220908 . JSTOR   3220908 .
  6. ^ a b Nedelcu, AM; Michod, RE (2003). “Sex as a response to oxidative stress: the effect of antioxidants on sexual induction in a facultatively sexual lineage” . Proc. Biol. Sci. 270 Suppl 2: S136–9. doi : 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0062 . PMC   1809951 . PMID   14667362 .
  7. ^ Hallmann, Armin (2003). “Extracellular Matrix and Sex-Inducing Pheromone in Volvox”. International Review of Cytology. 227.
  8. ^ DL, Kirk; Kirk, MM (1986). “Heat shock elicits production of sexual inducer in Volvox”. Science. 231 (4733): 51–4. Bibcode : 1986Sci…231…51K . doi : 10.1126/science.3941891 . PMID   3941891 .
  9. ^ Nedelcu, AM; Marcu, O; Michod, RE (2004). “Sex as a response to oxidative stress: a twofold increase in cellular reactive oxygen species activates sex genes” . Proc. Biol. Sci. 271 (1548): 1591–6. doi : 10.1098/rspb.2004.2747 . PMC   1691771 . PMID   15306305 .
  10. ^ a b Amon, P; Haas, E; Sumper, M (1998). “The sex-inducing pheromone and wounding trigger the same set of genes in the multicellular green alga Volvox” . Plant Cell. 10 (5): 781–9. doi : 10.2307/3870664 . PMC   144025 . PMID   9596636 .
  11. ^ Chamberlain, Charles Joseph (2007) [1932]. “Chlorophyceae”. Methods in Plant Histology . Read Books. pp. 162–180. ISBN   978-1-4086-2795-2 .
  12. ^ van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie (1700). “Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, concerning the Worms in Sheeps Livers, Gnats, and Animalcula in the Excrements of Frogs” . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . 22 (260–276): 509–518. doi : 10.1098/rstl.1700.0013 .[ permanent dead link ]
  13. ^ Herron, M. (2015). “…of the bignefs of a great corn of fand…”. Fierce Roller Blog, [1] .
  14. ^ Baker, H. (1753). Employment for the microscope. R. Dodsley:
    London, pl. XII,
    f. 27, [2] .
  15. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis . Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Editio decima revisa. Vol. 1 pp. [i-iv], [1]-823. Holmiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.
  16. ^ Herron, M. (2016). Moving without limbs! Linnaeus on Volvox. Fierce Roller Blog, [3] .
  17. ^ Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260, [4] Archived 2016-05-08 at the Wayback Machine ..
  18. ^ a b Herron, MD; Hackett, JD; Aylward, FO; Michod, RE (2009). “Triassic origin and early radiation of multicellular volvocine algae” . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , USA. 106 (9): 3254–3258. Bibcode : 2009PNAS..106.3254H . doi : 10.1073/pnas.0811205106 . PMC   2651347 .

External links[ edit ]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volvox .
Wikispecies has information related to Volvox
  • Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). “Volvox” . AlgaeBase . World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.
  • Volvox description with pictures from a Hosei University website
  • YouTube videos of Volvox:
    • Volvox micro-motility in Lake Oroville, CA
    • Life cycle and inversion
    • Waltzing Volvox
    • Spinning Volvox
  • Volvox, one of the 7 Wonders of the Micro World by Wim van Egmond, from Microscopy-UK
  • Volvox carteri at MetaMicrobe.com, with modes of reproduction, brief facts
  • v
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Taxon identifiers
  • Wikidata : Q310495
  • Wikispecies : Volvox
  • EoL : 11637
  • EPPO : 1VLXG
  • GBIF : 2639376
  • iNaturalist : 121588
  • IRMNG: 1032842
  • ITIS : 5582
  • NBN : NHMSYS0000607480
  • NCBI : 3066
  • NZOR: 8f3babf4-582c-43f0-8af7-7236b52ccb2c
  • uBio: 432579
  • WoRMS : 576718

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Volvox&oldid=869174089 ”
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      What kingdom is volvox in?

      Question:

      What kingdom is volvox in?

      Taxonomy and identifying algae:

      With the myriad of species of algae in nature, scientists require a specific and structured classification/naming system with which to definitively identify a particular species.

      Answer and Explanation:

      Classification of Volvox: Kingdom – Plantae; Phylum – Chlorophyta; Class – Chlorophyceae; Order – Volvocales; Family – Volvocaceae; Genus – Volvox.

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      Volvox

      genus of green algae
      Written By:

      • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
      See Article History

      Volvox, genus of some 20 species of freshwater green algae (division Chlorophyta) found worldwide. Volvox form spherical or oval hollow colonies that contain some 500 to 60,000 cells embedded in a gelatinous wall and that are often just visible with the naked eye.

      Volvox colonies were first recorded by Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700 and are widely studied as a genetic model of morphogenesis (how organisms develop specialized cells and tissues). Volvox also exhibit differentiation between somatic (non-sex cells) and reproductive cells, a phenomenon considered by some biologists to be significant in tracing the evolution of higher animals from microorganisms.

      The somatic cells of a Volvox colony each feature two flagella (whiplike appendages), several contractile vacuoles (fluid-regulating organelles), a single chloroplast (the site of photosynthesis), and an eyespot used for light reception . Neighbouring cells are often joined together by strands of cytoplasm , which enable cell-to-cell communication, and the colony moves through water by the coordinated movement of the flagella. The photosynthetic colonies are usually organized so that cells with larger eyespots are grouped at one side to facilitate phototaxis (movement toward light) for photosynthesis, and the reproductive cells are grouped at the opposite side.

      Volvox movement
      Volvox movementMotile colonies of Volvox aureus. Volvox colonies move through their environment by the coordinated movements of their cells’ flagella. The dark circles on the colonies are immature daughter colonies.Video: © Lebendkulturen.de/Shutterstock.com; music: Markus Staab/Musopen.org, Variations for the Healing of Arinushka by Arvo Pärt

      Most species of Volvox reproduce both asexually and sexually, and some, such as Volvox carteri, switch primary modes of reproduction at least once each year. Asexual colonies have reproductive cells known as gonidia, which produce small daughter colonies that are eventually released from the parent as they mature. In sexual colonies, developing ova or spermatozoa replace gonidia, and fertilization results in zygotes that form a cyst and are released from the parent colony after its death. Thick-walled zygotes formed late in the summer serve as winter resting stages.

      Volvox can be found in ponds, puddles, and bodies of still fresh water throughout the world. As autotrophs , they contribute to the production of oxygen and serve as food for a number of aquatic organisms, especially the microscopic invertebrates called rotifers . One of the most-common species, V. aureus, can form harmful algal blooms in warm waters with a high nitrogen content.

      Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

      • Dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (magnified).

        protozoan: Flagellated protozoans
        …swimming colonies; for example, in Sphaeroeca and Spongomonas many individual flagellated organisms are embedded in an unstalked gelatinous sphere.…
      • reproductive behaviour: Protozoans and sponges
        The colonial organism Volvox, which may be either of one “sex” or composed of cells of both sexes, produces true eggs and sperm. A chemical substance released by “females” induces the production of sperm packets; following the union of the egg and sperm, the parent colony dissolves, and…
      • The macroscopic genus of algae known as Acetabularia is commonly called “mermaid's wine glass” because of the distinctive umbrella-like shape of the tips of its stalks.

        algae
        Algae, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than…
      • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, detail of a portrait by Jan Verkolje; in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

        Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
        Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch microscopist who was the first to observe bacteria and protozoa. His researches on lower animals refuted the doctrine of spontaneous generation, and his observations helped lay the foundations for the sciences of bacteriology and protozoology.…
      • soma
        Soma, in biology, all the living matter of an animal or a plant except the reproductive, or germ, cells. The distinction between the soma and the germ cells was propounded by the 19th-century German biologist August Weismann in the “germ plasm” theory that emphasized the role of the immortal, heredity-carrying…

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      • Glass model of protozoan colony Volvox (magnified about 40×).

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      2 references found in Britannica articles

      Assorted References

        • mating behaviour
          • In reproductive behaviour: Protozoans and sponges
        • range and diversity of structure
          • In protozoan: Flagellated protozoans

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