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Periodic Table of Elements showing Non-Metals or Non-metallic Elements



Periodic Table of the Elements


Links to Tables showing Periodic Element Groups.

[ Alkali Metals ]
[ Alkaline Earth Metals ]
[ Blocks ]
[ Gases ]
[ Halogens ]
[ Lanthanides/Actinides ]
[ Liquids (stp) ]
[ Main Group ]
[ Metalloids ]
[ Metals ]
[ Noble Gases ]
[ Non-Metals ]
[ Solids (stp) ]
[ Transition Metals ]
[ Periodic ]

Non metals


The non-metals or non-metallic elements; hydrogen (H), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P), sulphur (sulfer) (S), selenium (Se), (Uuo may belong here) and the noble gases form a relatively small group with a step like pattern towards the left-hand side of the periodic table (hydrogen being the odd one out on the right of the table). Non-metals are not strictly defined, but tend to show characteristic properties like poor heat and electrical conductivity, form acidic oxides, dull low lustre and brittle, low densities, low melting points and high electro negativity.

Hydrogen can become metallic when exposed to extremely high pressures. Some allotropes of elements show more pronounced metal, metalloid or non-metal behaviour than others. The element carbon; its diamond allotrope is non-metallic, however the graphite allotrope is electrically conductive showing characteristic more like a metalloid. Phosphorus, and selenium also have allotropes which display borderline behaviour.

Point at or click an element for more information:

       

Group***

Period

1
IA
1A
2
IIA
2A
3
IIIB
3B
4
IVB
4B
5
VB
5B
6
VIB
6B
7
VIIB
7B
8
VIII
8
9
VIII
8
10
VIII
8
11
IB
1B
12
IIB
2B
13
IIIA
3A
14
IVA
4A
15
VA
5A
16
VIA
6A
17
VIIA
7A
18
VIIIA
8A
11
H

1.008
2
He
4.003
23
Li
6.941
4
Be

9.012
5
B
10.81
6
C
12.01
7
N
14.01
8
O
16.00
9
F
19.00
10
Ne
20.18
311
Na

22.99
12
Mg

24.31
13
Al
26.98
14
Si
28.09
15
P
30.97
16
S
32.07
17
Cl
35.45
18
Ar
39.95
419
K
39.10
20
Ca
40.08
21
Sc
44.96
22
Ti
47.88
23
V
50.94

24
Cr
52.00

25
Mn
54.94

26
Fe
55.85
27
Co
58.47
28
Ni
58.69

29
Cu
63.55

30
Zn
65.39
31
Ga
69.72
32
Ge
72.59
33
As
74.92
34
Se
78.96
35
Br
79.90
36
Kr
83.80
537
Rb
85.47
38
Sr
87.62
39
Y
88.91
40
Zr
91.22
41
Nb
92.91
42
Mo
95.94
43
Tc
(98)
44
Ru
101.1
45
Rh
102.9
46
Pd
106.4
47
Ag
107.9
48
Cd
112.4
49
In
114.8
50
Sn
118.7
51
Sb
121.8
52
Te
127.6
53
I
126.9
54
Xe
131.3
655
Cs
132.9
56
Ba
137.3

*
72
Hf
178.5
73
Ta
180.9
74
W
183.9
75
Re
186.2
76
Os
190.2
77
Ir
190.2
78
Pt
195.1
79
Au
197.0
80
Hg
200.5
81
Tl
204.4
82
Pb
207.2
83
Bi
209.0
84
Po
(209)
85
At
(210)
86
Rn
(222)
787
Fr
(223)
88
Ra
(226)

**
104
Rf
(261)
105
Db
(262)
106
Sg
(266)
107
Bh
(264)
108
Hs
(269)
109
Mt
(268)
110
Ds
(281)
111
Rg
(272)
112
Uub
(285)
113
Uut
(284)
114
Uuq
(289)
115
Uup
(288)
116
Uuh
(292)
117
Uus
()
118
Uuo
(294)
 

 

Lanthanide Series*
(Lanthanoid)
57
La
138.9
58
Ce
140.1
59
Pr
140.9
60
Nd
144.2
61
Pm
(145)
62
Sm
150.4
63
Eu
152.0
64
Gd
157.3
65
Tb
158.9
66
Dy
162.5
67
Ho
164.9
68
Er
167.3
69
Tm
168.9
70
Yb
173.0
71
Lu
175.0
Actinide Series**
(Actinoids)
89
Ac
(227)
90
Th
232.0
91
Pa
(231)
92
U
(238)
93
Np
(237)
94
Pu
(244)
95
Am
(243)
96
Cm
(247)
97
Bk
(247)
98
Cf
(251)
99
Es
(252)
100
Fm
(257)
101
Md
(258)
102
No
(259)
103
Lr
(262)

***Groups are by 3 notation conventions.




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Video: Nonmetal Elements on the Periodic Table: Definition, Properties, & Reactions



Nonmetal elements are omnipresent and essential for life. Learn about the properties and typical reactions of these important elements, and then assess your new knowledge with a quiz.


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Nonmetal Elements on the Periodic Table: Definition, Properties, & Reactions

Chapter 23

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 Lesson 49


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  • 0:00 What Are Nonmetal Elements?

  • 0:50 Nonmetal Gas Elements

  • 1:50 Solid Elements and Noble Gases

  • 2:45 Reactions with Metals

  • 4:05 Reactions with Other Nonmetals

  • 5:10 Lesson Summary


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Lesson Transcript

Instructor:
Elizabeth (Nikki) Wyman

Nikki has a master’s degree in teaching chemistry and has taught high school chemistry, biology and astronomy.

Nonmetal elements are omnipresent and essential for life. Learn about the properties and typical reactions of these important elements, and then assess your new knowledge with a quiz.

What Are Nonmetal Elements?

Only 17 elements on the periodic table are nonmetal elements, yet they make up most of the matter in the universe and most of us living things!

Many sources define nonmetal elements as elements that are not metals and lack qualities of metals. What that means is that nonmetal elements are elements with relatively low boiling points, that are poor conductors of heat and electricity, and that do not readily give up their electrons.

In the periodic table below, the nonmetal element squares are colored red. Nonmetals are located on the far right side of the periodic table, except hydrogen, which is located in the top left corner.

Periodic table

The 17 nonmetal elements are: hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, argon, selenium, bromine, krypton, iodine, xenon, and radon.

Nonmetal Gas Elements

Most of the nonmetals are clear, odorless gases at room temperature. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon all fit into this category. 78% of our atmosphere is made up of nitrogen atoms, while 20% is made up of oxygen.

Chlorine is a yellow-green colored gas with a distinct odor that burns the nostrils in high doses. You may have smelled it when visiting a chlorinated pool. Fluorine is a yellow gas that is equally unpleasant to smell and definitely more toxic. Radon is unstable and often radioactive. It seeps into underground basements and must be pumped out through ventilation systems.

Chlorine

Bromine is a brown liquid at room temperature that readily evaporates into a deep orange gas. It’s the only nonmetal element that exists in liquid form. Like chlorine and fluorine, bromine has a distinct odor and can be quite toxic.

Bromine

Solid Nonmetal Elements

The remaining elements, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, and iodine, exist in solid forms at room temperature. Each of these nonmetal elements has several different solid forms it can exist in, though some forms are more common than others.

For example, carbon is most commonly found as graphite, but it also forms diamonds. The most common form of sulfur is yellow and brittle solid and slightly stinky, like rotten eggs. Phosphorus has many forms, one of which is a gas, white phosphorus, that can ignite if exposed to oxygen. Iodine is often a brown solid that easily sublimes into purple vapors.

Iodine

Noble Gases

The farthest right column of the periodic table contains some special nonmetal elements known as the noble gases. These elements are clear, odorless gases that are especially nonreactive. They exist most stably as lone atoms. Another word for this is monatomic.

Reactions with Metals

With the exception of the noble gases, nonmetals are capable of a wide variety of reactions. The type of reaction depends on the specific properties of the nonmetal. There are some general kinds of reactions that all nonmetals are capable of.

Many nonmetals are extremely greedy for electrons and will take them from metals. In these reactions, a nonmetal like nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, phosphorus, bromine, or sulfur will attack a metal and steal its electrons. The nonmetal, with its surplus of electrons, is now a ‘negatively’ charged ion.

Meanwhile, the metal has a deficit of electrons and is now a ‘positively’ charged ion. Opposites attract, and this positively charged metal and negatively charged nonmetal form a compound known as an ionic compound.

The equation ‘M’ plus ‘X’ becomes ‘M’ ‘X’ shows how a metal, ‘M’, will react with a nonmetal, ‘X’, to form an ionic compound, ‘MX’. For example, solid sodium reacts with chlorine gas to make the ionic compound sodium chloride, also known as table salt. Another example is rust. Iron metal reacts with oxygen gas to form solid iron oxide – rust.

Salt crystals

Reactions with Other Nonmetals

Nonmetals are always searching to gain electrons rather than lose them. Many nonmetal elements like to bond with one other element of their own kind. In a battle of desire, some nonmetals can steal electrons outright from other nonmetals, but most of the time they elect to share electrons. This is called a covalent bond.

When two of the same elements are bonded together, they are called diatomic molecules. Nonmetals that prefer to exist diatomically include hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, bromine, iodine, nitrogen, and chlorine. This series of nonmetals is often referred to as the HOFBrINCl series.

One example of nonmetals reacting to form a covalent compound is that of ammonia. Diatomic nitrogen reacts with diatomic hydrogen to produce ammonia. Another is when hydrogen peroxide breaks down into water and diatomic oxygen gas.

Ammonia

Lesson Summary

Nonmetal elements are abundant in the universe and incredibly important building blocks for life. There are 17 nonmetal elements, and all are located on the right side of the periodic table with the exception of hydrogen, which is on the top left side.

Nonmetal elements have relatively low boiling points, are poor conductors of heat and electricity, and don’t like to lose electrons. Most nonmetals are gases at room temperature; however, a few are solids and only one (bromine) is a liquid.

The noble gases are an unreactive group of nonmetals that like to exist as independent atoms, or be monatomic. Metals and nonmetals react to form ionic compounds. In these reactions, nonmetals steal electrons from metals. Several other elements like to exist as diatomic molecules. They can be remembered as the HOFBrINCl series. These nonmetals share electrons and form covalent compounds.

About the Nonmetal Elements

Nonmetals definition
  • There are 17 nonmetal elements on the periodic table
  • Nonmetals have low boiling points, are poor conductors, and like to keep their electrons
  • At room temperature, most nonmetals are gases, a few are solids, and one is a liquid
  • The noble gases are unreactive while the other nonmetals form ionic or covalent compounds

Learning Outcomes

When you are done, you should be able to:

  • Name the nonmetals of the periodic table
  • List key properties of the nonmetals
  • Discuss how nonmetals react with other elements


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    3:32

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    6:19

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    4:39

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    6:53

  • Alkali Metal Elements: Properties, Characteristics & Reactions

    4:35

  • Alkaline Earth Metals: Definition, Properties & Characteristics

    4:45

  • Anion: Definition & Examples

    3:18

  • Atomic Number: Definition & Symbol

  • Average Atomic Mass: Definition & Formula

    5:22

  • Cation: Definition & Examples

    4:23

  • Dmitri Mendeleev & the Periodic Table: Biography, Contribution & Facts

    4:13

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    6:55

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    4:59

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    4:19

  • Hydroxide Ion: Definition & Formula

    3:38

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    5:54

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    3:52

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    4:14

  • Nonmetal Elements on the Periodic Table: Definition, Properties, & Reactions

    6:16

  • 9:53

    Next Lesson

    Oxidation Number: Definition, Rules & Examples



    Oxidation Number: Definition, Rules & Examples

  • What is Xenon? – Definition, Uses & Facts

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    The Periodic Table, Atoms & Elements

Ch 24. Using Data for Investigation &…

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    Using Data for Investigation & Experimentation

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