Surname stories: Land of the –nens

Surname stories: Land of the –nens


Finnish Surnames

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Finnish names are used in the country of Finland in northern Europe.
AALTO Finnish
From Finnish aalto meaning “wave”. A famous bearer was Finnish architect Alvar Aalto (1898-1976).
HARMAAJÄRVI Finnish
Means “grey lake” in Finnish.
HEIKKI Finnish
From the given name HEIKKI .
JÄRVI Finnish
Means “(dweller by the) lake” in Finnish.
JÄRVINEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish järvi meaning “lake”. It is one of the most common surnames in Finland.
JOKELA Finnish
Derived from Finnish joki “river”.
JOKINEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish joki “river”.
KARPPINEN Finnish
From karppi which means “carp”.
KORHONEN Finnish
Possibly from archaic Finnish korho meaning “deaf, hard of hearing”.
KULMALA Finnish
Means “corner”, with suffix -la giving an idea of a place. The name was originally given to a house or a place.
LAAKKONEN Finnish
Variant of LAAKSONEN .
LAAKSONEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish laakso “valley”.
LAHTI Finnish
Means “bay, cove” in Finnish.
LAUKKANEN Finnish
Finnish surname which means “he who gallops, takes big steps”.
LEHTONEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish lehto meaning “grove”.
LINNA Finnish
Means “castle”. A famous namesake in Finland is Väinö Linna (1920-1992), author of ‘The Unknown Soldier’.
MÄKELÄ Finnish
Means “the place of the hill” in Finnish.
MÄKINEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish mäki meaning “hill”.
MUSTONEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish musta meaning “black”.
NIEMINEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish niemi meaning “peninsula”.
NIKULA Finnish
From the given name Niku, a Finnish form of NICHOLAS , combined with the local suffix -la. It is common nowadays in western Finland.
NURMI Finnish
From a Finnish word meaning “meadow”. It was the surname of the athlete Paavo Nurmi (1897-1973).
NYLUND Finnish , Swedish
From the Swedish-speaking south of Finland, directly from Swedish ny “new” and lund “grove”.
PAJARI Finnish
Means “boyar”, the Finnish form of the Russian noble title боярин (boyarin). The name has come from Finland’s east where Russian influences are quite strong.
PARTANEN Finnish
Derived from a Finnish word meaning “beard”.
PEKKANEN Finnish
Derived from the given name PEKKA .
PENTTI Finnish
Derived from the given name PENTTI .
PEURA Finnish
Means “deer” in Finnish.
RANTA Finnish
Originally indicated a person who lived near the shore, from Finnish ranta meaning “shore, beach”.
RAUTIO Finnish
Means “smith” in Finnish.
RINNE (2) Finnish
Means “hillside” in Finnish.
RUOHO Finnish
Means “grass” in Finnish.
RUOTSALAINEN Finnish
Means “Swede” in Finnish.
SAARI Finnish
From Finnish saari meaning “island”.
SEPPÄ Finnish
Means “smith” in Finnish.
SEPPÄNEN Finnish
Patronymic form of SEPPÄ .
TÄHTINEN Finnish
Derived from the given name TÄHTI .
TAKALA Finnish
Means “(dweller in the) back”, probably denoting someone who lived in a remote area, from Finnish taka.
TOIVONEN Finnish
Derived from the given name TOIVO .
VANHANEN Finnish
From Finnish vanha meaning “old”.
VENÄLÄINEN Finnish
Means “Russian” in Finnish. This name was originally used by the ethnic Finns who lived on the Russian side of the border.
VIRTANEN Finnish
Derived from Finnish virta meaning “stream”.
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Life & society Language

Surname stories: Land of the –nens

Delve into the meanings of Finnish surnames, starting with the suffix –nen. And can Mr Wolf live beside the Littlepigs?

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Finnish surnames often refer to a place where a family lived. Virtanen could literally mean “small stream,” but the surname was devised to mean a family living near a stream.

Photo: Niklas Sjöblom/taivasalla.net

The most common Finnish-language surnames include Korhonen, Virtanen, Nieminen, Mäkinen, Hämäläinen, Koskinen, Heikkinen and Järvinen. Yes, this land loves its –nen suffix, a sure way to recognise a Finnish surname.

More than a third of all Finns have surnames ending in -nen. Though the Finnish suffix –nen is normally a diminutive, in surnames it more often signifies belonging to a place where a family lived. Virtanen could literally mean “small stream,” but the surname was devised to mean a family living near a stream. Mäkinen, literally “small hill,” correspondingly meant the family from the hill.

“Many families chose this kind of surname made of a natural feature with the suffix –nen in the Finnish national romantic period of the 19th century,” explains Sirkka Paikkala, who studies Finnish surnames at the Research Institute for Languages of Finland.

“The –nen suffix was originally from Finland’s Eastern surname tradition, but in the 1800s such surnames were also adopted in the West and that’s why they are now so widespread,” she says.

The rivals: Virtanen and Korhonen

There has recently been extremely tight competition for top ranking between the two most common Finnish surnames, Virtanen and Korhonen (the equivalents to Smith and Jones). But the Korhonens now seem to be taking a lead, by either breeding faster or living longer. In July 2014 the Finnish Population Register Centre announced that there are 23,380 Korhonens, compared to 23,141 Virtanens.

In third place we find Mäkinen with 21,113, and quickly catching up are the Nieminens in fourth place with 21,054. The obscure origins of the top surname Korhonen may be related to deafness or a word meaning “old man.”

The non-nen surnames

Kanerva

Many surnames reflect the Finns’ close relationship to nature, for example a popular surname Kanerva (heather).Photo: Visit Finland

But it’s not all about the –nens. Many western Finnish surnames end in the suffix –la or –lä, which indicated association with a place (for example Mäkelä is connected to a hill) or a farmstead (Juhani Mattila indicates “Juhani from Matti’s farm”). “Some surnames also relate to a profession, like Seppälä for someone from a smithy,” Paikkala adds.

Many surnames reflect the Finns’ close relationship to nature. Examples include Kanerva (heather), Nummi (moor), Kivi (stone), Niemi (peninsula) and Halla (frost). In one Helsinki suburb a Mr Susi (wolf) lives next door to the Sikanen family, whose name can be understood as meaning “little pigs.”

Past and present trends

3352-maisema-550-jpg

During early 20th century many Finns translated their former Swedish-language names into Finnish; for example writer Alexis Stenvall changed his name to Aleksis Kivi (Aleksis Rock).Photo: Kimmo Mäntylä/Lehtikuva

Paikkala’s book Se tavallinen Virtanen (which translates roughly to “The Average Smith”) is an extensive study of Finnish surnames in the period 1850–1921 when many families first officially adopted hereditary surnames. During the Fennicisation movement of the early 20th century many Finns translated their former Swedish-language names into Finnish. Writer Alexis Stenvall changed his name to Aleksis Kivi, and the renowned painter Axel Waldemar Gallén became Akseli Gallen-Kallela.

But Paikkala enthusiastically explains that her work is not all about digging into dusty archives: “I often have to deal with email or phone enquiries when people are looking for the etymology of a surname, or feel they need a completely new surname.”

Some unusual surnames with obscure origins have strange meanings in modern Finnish, including Kiimamaa (land in heat), Patja (mattress), Makkara (sausage), Kaalinpää (cabbage head), Punkki (mite), Romu (junk), and Hikipää (sweaty head).

Kaalinpää

Some unusual surnames with obscure origins have strange meanings in modern Finnish, including Kaalinpää (cabbage head).Photo: Kimmo Mäntylä/Lehtikuva

According to Paikkala, a new trend is discernible among newlyweds. “Couples planning marriage look for a totally new surname to indicate the beginning of a new life. This phenomenon started in the 1990s after Finnish laws were changed to allow both women and men to choose their surname.”

However, upon marriage about 80 percent of Finnish women still assume their husband’s surname or combine their maiden name and their husband’s name. Combining Finnish surnames in this way opens up amusing possibilities. If Mr Pulska (fat) marries Miss Orava (squirrel), he might become Pulska-Orava (fat squirrel). And if Miss Nälkäinen (hungry), marries Mr Karhu (bear), she could become Nälkäinen-Karhu (hungry bear).
 

By Carina Chela and Fran Weaver, June 2011; updated July 2014





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