Plate Tectonics Review Flashcards

 
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rbartlett TEACHER

Plate Tectonics Review

A review set for the Earth Science Plate Tectonics Unit.

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Theory of Continental Drift
Theory that continents move due to centrifical force
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Theory that plates that move due to convection currents
Alfred Wegener
credited with the theory of Continental Drift
Harry Hess
credited with the theory of Plate Tectonics
sea floor spreading
when two oceanic plates pull apart, magma rises and new crust is formed
convection currents
circular movement of a substance due to changes in temperature and density
plates
large pieces of earths crust that move due to convection currents
oceanic crust
earths crust located under the ocean
continental crust
earths crust made of land
pangea
large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago
divergent boundary
when two plates pull apart
convergent boundary
when two plates come together
transform boundary
when two plates grind past each other
rift valley
formed when two plates pull apart and land falls downard
island arc
a chain of volcanic islands formed at an ocean-ocean convergent boundary
volcanic arc
a chain of volcanic mountains formed at an ocean-continental convergent boundary
mountain range
formed at a continental-continental convergent boundary
subduction zone
the more dense plate us pulled into the mantle under the less dense plate
Mid Atlantic Ridge
divergent boundary in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
trench
depression formed at a subduction zone
lithosphere
another name for the crust
aesthenosphere
another name for them mantle
crust
outer layer of the Earth, the thinnest layer
mantle
thickest layer of the Earth, part liquid part solid where convection currents are found
mountain range
form at continental-continental convergent boundaries
temperature inside Earth
increases with depth
pressure inside Earth
increases with depth
fault
a break in the earths crust that moves
igneous rock
formed from cooling lava
hot spot
area where magma from the mantle continually breaks through the crust
hot spot example
Hawaiian islands
age of ocean rocks
younger near sea floor spreading zone
high risk cities
cities where earthquakes and volcanoes are likely to happen
low risk cities
cities where earthquakes and volcanoes are not likely to happen
plate tectonics evidence
rocks, fossils, climate, puzzle fit, glaciers, sea floor spreading
rate of plate movement
5 cm/year
rock crystals
form when rocks cool slowly
crust density
ocean crust is more dense
Wegener’s evidence
fossils, rocks, climate
Wegener’s flaws
how continents moved
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cotalley

Plate Tectonics

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Crust
the outermost layer fo the Earth
Mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Outer Core
The layer of earth that is made of liquid nickle and iron
Inner Core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
Asthenosphere
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
Lithosphere
Earth’s crust and solid upper mantle, broken into tectonic plates
Seismic Waves
Produced by Earthquakes and spread in all directions
Convection Currents
Circular currents in the mantle caused by the magma being heated by the core off the Earth.
Sea floor Spreading
when two oceanic plates pull apart, magma rises and new crust is formed
Convergent Boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
Divergent Boundary
A boundary along which two tectonic plates move apart, characterized by either a mid-ocean ridge or a continental rift valley.
Transform Boundary
Boundary when two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally
Continental Drift
The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations
Tectonic Plates
Sections of the Earth’s crust that move due to convection currents.
Pangaea
A large "supercontinent" that is believed to have connected all of the continents on earth about 225 million years ago.
Fossil Evidence
Traces of the same prehistoric organisms are found on different continents separated by oceans
Mountain Building
This occurs when two continental plates collide or push against one another.
Fault
A break in the earth’s crust
Volcano
A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
Hot Spot
A volcanically active area of Earth’s surface far from a tectonic plate boundary.
Earthquake
A sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth’s crust or
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