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MCAT Chemistry Equations

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Nernst Equation
Ecell=Eºcell- (RT/nF) (lnQ)
Gibbs Free Energy (in relation to EMF)
ΔG=-nFEcell
Standard Electromotive Force
EMF=Eºreduction-Eºoxidation
Standard Conditions
25º C, 1 atm Pressure, 1 M concentrations, most stable form of each compound
Faraday’s Constant
1 F=96487 J/V
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation
pH=pKa + log [conj. Base]/[weak acid]
Relation Between base and acid dissociation constants
Ka * Kb = Kw= 1E-14
Base dissociation Constant
Kb= [B⁺]*[OH⁻]/[BOH]
Acid dissociation constant
Ka=[H3O⁺]*[A⁻]/[HA]
Water dissociation constant
Kw=[H⁺]*[OH⁻]=1E-14; pH + pOH=14
pH
pH=-log([H⁺])=log(1/[H⁺])
Boyle’s Law
P₁V₁=P₂V₂
Charles’ Law
V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂
Avagadro’s Principle
n₁/V₁=n₂/V₂
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
Ideal Gas Constant
0.0821 Latm/molk or 8.314 J/mol*K
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
P(total)=Pa+Pb+Pc+…
Pa=Xa*P(total)
Root Mean Square Speed
uRMS=√(3RT/MM), MM=molec mass
Graham’s Law of Diffusion/Effusion
r1/r2=√(MM2/MM1)
Freezing Point Depression
ΔTf=Kf*m; m=molality (moles/kg), Kf=freezing constant for solvent
Boiling point elevation
ΔTb=Kb*m; m=molality (moles/kg), Kb= boiling constant for solven
Osmotic Pressure
π=MRT; M=molarity (moles/L)
Raoult’s Law
ΔP=XbPºa; Pa=Xaa*Pºa, where Pºa is the vapor pressure of pure a, Xa is the mole fraction of a.
Dilution
M₁V₁=M₂V₂
Heat absorbed or released
q=mcΔT; where m is mass and c is specific heat
Enthalpy change
ΔHreaction=Hproducts-Hreactants; where positive, endothermic rxn, negative, exothermic
Entropy change
ΔS=Sfinal-Sinitial; where positive, disorder increases, negative, order increases
Gibbs Free Energy
ΔG=ΔH-TΔS, must be negative to be spontaneous
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