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Nucleated red blood cell The Prognostic Implications of Nucleated Red Blood Cells in …

Nucleated red blood cell

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NRBCs are visible as larger cells with dark centers.

All vertebrate organisms have hemoglobin -containing cells in their blood and with the exception of mammals , all of these red blood cells contain a nucleus . [1] Mammals represent ~5,500 named species out of ~66,000 vertebrate species, [2] and within this ~8% subgroup, red blood cells are known as erythrocytes or RBCs and lack a cell nucleus in mature organisms. In contrast, a nucleated red blood cell (NRBC), also known by several other names , is a mammalian RBC that contains a cell nucleus. NRBCs occur in normal development as progenitor cells in the erythropoietic lineage and in pathological states.

Normally, nucleated RBCs are found only in the circulation of fetuses and newborn infants . [3] After infancy, RBCs normally only contain a nucleus during the very early stages of the cell’s life, and the nucleus is ejected as a normal part of cellular differentiation before the cell is released into the bloodstream. Thus, if NRBCs are seen on an adult’s peripheral blood smear , it suggests that there is a very high demand for the bone marrow to produce RBCs, and immature RBCs are being released into circulation. Possible pathologic causes include anemia , myelofibrosis , thalassemia , miliary tuberculosis , cancers involving bone marrow ( myelomas , leukemias , lymphomas ), and in chronic hypoxemia . [4]

Contents

  • 1 Nomenclature
  • 2 Healthy development
  • 3 Pathogenesis
  • 4 Popular culture
  • 5 Additional images
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Nomenclature[ edit ]

Several names are used for nucleated RBCs—erythroblast, normoblast, and megaloblast—with one minor variation in word sense .
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
The name normoblast always refers to normal, healthy cells that are the immediate precursors of normal, healthy, mature (anucleate) RBCs. The name megaloblast always refers to abnormally developed precursors. Often the name erythroblast is used synonymously with normoblast, but at other times it is considered a hypernym . In the latter sense , there are two types of erythroblasts: normoblasts as cells that develop as expected, and megaloblasts as unusually large erythroblasts that are associated with illness.

Healthy development[ edit ]

There are four stages in the normal development of a normoblast.

A comprehensive diagram of human hematopoiesis

IllustrationDescriptionImage
Proerythroblast.png Pronormoblast
Basophilic erythroblast.png Basophilic normoblast Prorubricyte.jpg
Polychromatic erythroblast.png Polychromatic normoblast (also polychromatophilic) Rubricyte.jpg
Orthochromatic erythroblast.png Orthochromatic normoblast (also orthochromatophilic) Metarubricyte.jpg

Pathogenesis[ edit ]

A megaloblast is an unusually large erythroblast that can be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency (caused by pernicious anemia or dietary insufficiency ), folic acid deficiency , or both (such anemias are collectively called megaloblastic anemias ). This kind of anemia leads to macrocytes (abnormally large red cells) and the condition called macrocytosis . The cause of this cellular gigantism is an impairment in DNA replication that delays nuclear maturation and cell division . Because RNA and cytoplasmic elements are synthesized at a constant rate despite the cells’ impaired DNA synthesis, the cells show nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchrony.

Popular culture[ edit ]

NRB’s can also be caused by the bites of certain urban spiders, resulting in a condition known as ” Spider Man Syndrome”. [9]

Additional images[ edit ]

  • Blood cell lineage

  • Hematopoiesis

See also[ edit ]

  • Erythropoiesis
  • Haematopoiesis
  • Hematopoietic stem cell

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ Hartenstein, V (2006). “Blood cells and blood cell development in the animal kingdom” (PDF). Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 22: 677–712. doi : 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010605.093317 . Retrieved October 28, 2016.

  2. ^ Osborn, Liz. “Number of Species Identified on Earth” . www.currentresults.com. Current Results Publishing Ltd. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  3. ^ Schwarz, SO; Stansbury, F (1954). “Significance of nucleated red blood cells in peripheral blood: Analysis of 1,496 cases” . JAMA. 154 (16): 1339–1340. doi : 10.1001/jama.1954.02940500019007 .
  4. ^ Blood Smear: Details on RBCs, WBCs
  5. ^ ” Erythroblast ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
  6. ^ ” Normoblast ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
  7. ^ ” Megaloblast ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
  8. ^ Normoblasts at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  9. ^ https://www.superherostuff.com/biographies/spideybio.html

External links[ edit ]

  • Pronormoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
  • Basophilic Normoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
  • Polychromatophilic Normoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
  • Orthochromatic Normoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
  • Histology image: 01804loa  – Histology Learning System at Boston University – “Bone Marrow and Hemopoiesis bone marrow smear, erythroblast series with proerythroblast “
  • Histology at uiowa.edu
  • v
  • t
  • e
Main cell types in blood
Myeloid
Granulocytes
  • CFU-G
  • Band cell
  • Neutrophil
  • Basophil
    • CFU-Baso
  • Eosinophil
    • CFU-Eos
  • Mast cell
    • CFU-Mast
Monocytes
Macrophages
  • Histiocytes
  • Kupffer cells
  • Alveolar macrophage
  • Microglia
  • Osteoclasts
  • Epithelioid cells
  • giant cells
    • Langhans giant cells , Foreign-body giant cell
    • Touton giant cells
Other
  • Antigen presenting cells
    • Dendritic cells
    • Langerhans cell
    • CFU-DL
  • CFU-M
    • MPS
Platelets
  • CFU-Meg
  • Megakaryoblast
  • Promegakaryocyte
  • Megakaryocyte
Red blood cells
  • Reticulocyte
  • Normoblast
  • CFU-E
Other
  • Precursor cells
    • CFU-GM
    • Megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitor cell
    • CFU-GEMM
  • Myelomonocyte
Other
  • Plasma
  • Hematopoietic stem cell
  • v
  • t
  • e
Myeloid physiology
Hematopoiesis
Myelopoiesis
( CFU-GEMM )
CFU-GM
  • Granulopoiesis
    • Myeloblast
    • Promyelocyte
    • Myelocyte
    • Metamyelocyte
    • Band cell
  • Monocytopoiesis
    • Monoblast
    • Promonocyte
MEP
  • Thrombopoiesis
    • Megakaryoblast
    • Promegakaryocyte
  • Erythropoiesis
    • Proerythroblast
    • Normoblast
    • Reticulocyte
General
  • Extramedullary hematopoiesis
Hemostasis
  • Coagulation
    • Fibrinolysis
  • Clot retraction
  • Platelet adhesiveness
Other
  • Erythrocyte aggregation

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nucleated_red_blood_cell&oldid=869317826 ”
Categories :

  • Human cells
  • Blood cells

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      • This page was last edited on 17 November 2018, at 21:19 (UTC).
      • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
        additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
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      Nucleated red blood cell

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Jump to navigation
      Jump to search

      NRBCs are visible as larger cells with dark centers.

      All vertebrate organisms have hemoglobin -containing cells in their blood and with the exception of mammals , all of these red blood cells contain a nucleus . [1] Mammals represent ~5,500 named species out of ~66,000 vertebrate species, [2] and within this ~8% subgroup, red blood cells are known as erythrocytes or RBCs and lack a cell nucleus in mature organisms. In contrast, a nucleated red blood cell (NRBC), also known by several other names , is a mammalian RBC that contains a cell nucleus. NRBCs occur in normal development as progenitor cells in the erythropoietic lineage and in pathological states.

      Normally, nucleated RBCs are found only in the circulation of fetuses and newborn infants . [3] After infancy, RBCs normally only contain a nucleus during the very early stages of the cell’s life, and the nucleus is ejected as a normal part of cellular differentiation before the cell is released into the bloodstream. Thus, if NRBCs are seen on an adult’s peripheral blood smear , it suggests that there is a very high demand for the bone marrow to produce RBCs, and immature RBCs are being released into circulation. Possible pathologic causes include anemia , myelofibrosis , thalassemia , miliary tuberculosis , cancers involving bone marrow ( myelomas , leukemias , lymphomas ), and in chronic hypoxemia . [4]

      Contents

      • 1 Nomenclature
      • 2 Healthy development
      • 3 Pathogenesis
      • 4 Popular culture
      • 5 Additional images
      • 6 See also
      • 7 References
      • 8 External links

      Nomenclature[ edit ]

      Several names are used for nucleated RBCs—erythroblast, normoblast, and megaloblast—with one minor variation in word sense .
      [5]
      [6]
      [7]
      [8]
      The name normoblast always refers to normal, healthy cells that are the immediate precursors of normal, healthy, mature (anucleate) RBCs. The name megaloblast always refers to abnormally developed precursors. Often the name erythroblast is used synonymously with normoblast, but at other times it is considered a hypernym . In the latter sense , there are two types of erythroblasts: normoblasts as cells that develop as expected, and megaloblasts as unusually large erythroblasts that are associated with illness.

      Healthy development[ edit ]

      There are four stages in the normal development of a normoblast.

      A comprehensive diagram of human hematopoiesis

      IllustrationDescriptionImage
      Proerythroblast.png Pronormoblast
      Basophilic erythroblast.png Basophilic normoblast Prorubricyte.jpg
      Polychromatic erythroblast.png Polychromatic normoblast (also polychromatophilic) Rubricyte.jpg
      Orthochromatic erythroblast.png Orthochromatic normoblast (also orthochromatophilic) Metarubricyte.jpg

      Pathogenesis[ edit ]

      A megaloblast is an unusually large erythroblast that can be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency (caused by pernicious anemia or dietary insufficiency ), folic acid deficiency , or both (such anemias are collectively called megaloblastic anemias ). This kind of anemia leads to macrocytes (abnormally large red cells) and the condition called macrocytosis . The cause of this cellular gigantism is an impairment in DNA replication that delays nuclear maturation and cell division . Because RNA and cytoplasmic elements are synthesized at a constant rate despite the cells’ impaired DNA synthesis, the cells show nuclear-cytoplasmic asynchrony.

      Popular culture[ edit ]

      NRB’s can also be caused by the bites of certain urban spiders, resulting in a condition known as ” Spider Man Syndrome”. [9]

      Additional images[ edit ]

      • Blood cell lineage

      • Hematopoiesis

      See also[ edit ]

      • Erythropoiesis
      • Haematopoiesis
      • Hematopoietic stem cell

      References[ edit ]

      1. ^ Hartenstein, V (2006). “Blood cells and blood cell development in the animal kingdom” (PDF). Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 22: 677–712. doi : 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010605.093317 . Retrieved October 28, 2016.

      2. ^ Osborn, Liz. “Number of Species Identified on Earth” . www.currentresults.com. Current Results Publishing Ltd. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
      3. ^ Schwarz, SO; Stansbury, F (1954). “Significance of nucleated red blood cells in peripheral blood: Analysis of 1,496 cases” . JAMA. 154 (16): 1339–1340. doi : 10.1001/jama.1954.02940500019007 .
      4. ^ Blood Smear: Details on RBCs, WBCs
      5. ^ ” Erythroblast ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
      6. ^ ” Normoblast ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
      7. ^ ” Megaloblast ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
      8. ^ Normoblasts at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
      9. ^ https://www.superherostuff.com/biographies/spideybio.html

      External links[ edit ]

      • Pronormoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
      • Basophilic Normoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
      • Polychromatophilic Normoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
      • Orthochromatic Normoblasts Presented by the University of Virginia
      • Histology image: 01804loa  – Histology Learning System at Boston University – “Bone Marrow and Hemopoiesis bone marrow smear, erythroblast series with proerythroblast “
      • Histology at uiowa.edu
      • v
      • t
      • e
      Main cell types in blood
      Myeloid
      Granulocytes
      • CFU-G
      • Band cell
      • Neutrophil
      • Basophil
        • CFU-Baso
      • Eosinophil
        • CFU-Eos
      • Mast cell
        • CFU-Mast
      Monocytes
      Macrophages
      • Histiocytes
      • Kupffer cells
      • Alveolar macrophage
      • Microglia
      • Osteoclasts
      • Epithelioid cells
      • giant cells
        • Langhans giant cells , Foreign-body giant cell
        • Touton giant cells
      Other
      • Antigen presenting cells
        • Dendritic cells
        • Langerhans cell
        • CFU-DL
      • CFU-M
        • MPS
      Platelets
      • CFU-Meg
      • Megakaryoblast
      • Promegakaryocyte
      • Megakaryocyte
      Red blood cells
      • Reticulocyte
      • Normoblast
      • CFU-E
      Other
      • Precursor cells
        • CFU-GM
        • Megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitor cell
        • CFU-GEMM
      • Myelomonocyte
      Other
      • Plasma
      • Hematopoietic stem cell
      • v
      • t
      • e
      Myeloid physiology
      Hematopoiesis
      Myelopoiesis
      ( CFU-GEMM )
      CFU-GM
      • Granulopoiesis
        • Myeloblast
        • Promyelocyte
        • Myelocyte
        • Metamyelocyte
        • Band cell
      • Monocytopoiesis
        • Monoblast
        • Promonocyte
      MEP
      • Thrombopoiesis
        • Megakaryoblast
        • Promegakaryocyte
      • Erythropoiesis
        • Proerythroblast
        • Normoblast
        • Reticulocyte
      General
      • Extramedullary hematopoiesis
      Hemostasis
      • Coagulation
        • Fibrinolysis
      • Clot retraction
      • Platelet adhesiveness
      Other
      • Erythrocyte aggregation

      Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nucleated_red_blood_cell&oldid=869317826 ”
      Categories :

      • Human cells
      • Blood cells

      Navigation menu

      Personal tools

      • Not logged in
      • Talk
      • Contributions
      • Create account
      • Log in

      Namespaces

      • Article
      • Talk

      Variants

        Views

        • Read
        • Edit
        • View history

        More


          Navigation

          • Main page
          • Contents
          • Featured content
          • Current events
          • Random article
          • Donate to Wikipedia
          • Wikipedia store

          Interaction

          • Help
          • About Wikipedia
          • Community portal
          • Recent changes
          • Contact page

          Tools

          • What links here
          • Related changes
          • Upload file
          • Special pages
          • Permanent link
          • Page information
          • Wikidata item
          • Cite this page

          Print/export

          • Create a book
          • Download as PDF
          • Printable version

          In other projects

          • Wikimedia Commons

          Languages

          • العربية
          • Català
          • Čeština
          • Ελληνικά
          • Español
          • Français
          • Galego
          • Ido
          • Bahasa Indonesia
          • Italiano
          • Latviešu
          • Nederlands
          • 日本語
          • Polski
          • Português
          • Русский
          • Shqip
          • Slovenščina
          • ไทย
          • Türkçe
          Edit links

          • This page was last edited on 17 November 2018, at 21:19 (UTC).
          • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
            additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
          • Privacy policy
          • About Wikipedia
          • Disclaimers
          • Contact Wikipedia
          • Developers
          • Cookie statement
          • Mobile view
          • Wikimedia Foundation
          • Powered by MediaWiki