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Mount Pelée

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Mount Pelée
La Pelée vue du Carbet.jpg
Highest point
Elevation 1,397 m (4,583 ft)  [1]
Prominence 1,381 m (4,531 ft)
Coordinates 14°49′N 61°10′W / 14.817°N 61.167°W / 14.817; -61.167 Coordinates : 14°49′N 61°10′W / 14.817°N 61.167°W / 14.817; -61.167
Geography
Mount Pelee is located in Martinique

Mount Pelee
Mount Pelee
Martinique
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc / belt Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc
Last eruption 1929–1932 [2]
Climbing
Easiest route walk

Mount Pelée (pronounced /pəˈl/ ; French : Montagne Pelée meaning “bald mountain” or “peeled” mountain”) [3] is an active volcano at the northern end of Martinique , an island and French overseas department in the Lesser Antilles island arc of the Caribbean . Its volcanic cone is composed of stratified layers of hardened ash and solidified lava . [4] The volcano is currently in a quiescent state, which means it is not active, but still registering minor activity. [5]

The stratovolcano is famous for its eruption in 1902 and the complete destruction that resulted, dubbed the worst volcanic disaster of the early 20th century. [6] [7] [8] The eruption killed about 30,000 people. [9] [10] Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows which destroyed the city of Saint-Pierre (at that time, the largest city on the island [11] [12] ), within minutes of the eruption. [13]

The main eruption, on 8 May 1902, left only two survivors in the direct path of the blast flow: Louis-Auguste Cyparis survived because he was in a poorly ventilated, dungeon -like jail cell ; Léon Compère-Léandre , living on the edge of the city, escaped with severe burns. [14] Havivra Da Ifrile, a young girl, reportedly escaped with injuries during the eruption by taking a small boat to a cave down the shore, and was later found adrift 3 km (1.9 mi) from the island, unconscious. The event marked the only major volcanic disaster in the history of France and its overseas territories.

Contents

  • 1 Geographical setting and description
  • 2 Geological history
  • 3 1902 eruption
    • 3.1 The main eruption
    • 3.2 Relief
    • 3.3 Subsequent activity
    • 3.4 Volcanic spine
  • 4 Current status
  • 5 Biology
  • 6 In literature
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Geographical setting and description[ edit ]

Mount Pelée is the result of a typical subduction zone . The subduction formed the Lesser Antilles island arc , a curved chain of volcanoes approximately 850 kilometres (530 mi) in length, between Puerto Rico and Venezuela , where the Caribbean Plate meets Atlantic oceanic crust belonging to the South American Plate . Other volcanoes in the island arc are also known for their volcanic activity, including Saint Vincent ‘s La Soufrière , Guadeloupe ‘s La Grande Soufriere volcano, Montserrat ‘s Soufrière Hills , and the submarine volcano Kick ’em Jenny . [4]

Geological history[ edit ]

Volcanologists have identified three different phases in the evolution of Mount Pelée volcano: initial, intermediate, and modern. [4] In an initial phase, called the “Paléo-Pelée” stage, Mount Pelee was a common stratovolcano. The cone of Paléo-Pelée was composed of many layers of lava flows and fragmented volcanic debris. Remains of the Paléo-Pelée cone are still visible at the northern view at the volcano today.

A second stage, now called the intermediate phase, started around 100,000 years ago, after a long period of quiescence. This stage is grouped by the formation of the Morne Macouba lava dome, then later on, the Morne Macouba caldera . During the intermediate phase, there were several eruptions which produced pyroclastic flows like those that destroyed Saint-Pierre in the 1902 eruption. Around 25,000 years ago, a large southwest sector collapse occurred, forming a landslide . This event is similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980 . [4]

The modern stage of the evolution of Mount Pelée has created most of the current cone, with deposits of pumice and the results of past pyroclastic flows. More than 30 eruptions have been identified during the last 5,000 years of the volcano’s activity.

3,000 years ago, following a large pumice eruption, the Étang Sec (French for Dry Pond) caldera was then formed. The 1902 eruption took place within the Étang Sec crater. This eruption formed many pyroclastic flows and produced a dome which filled the caldera.

The following eruption in 1929 formed a second dome in the Étang Sec caldera, and produced pyroclastic flows emptying into the Blanche River valley. This last eruption is mainly responsible for the current state of Mount Pelée. [4]

1902 eruption[ edit ]

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A map of the affected area around Mount Pelée printed in 1904.

Before the tragic 1902 eruption, as early as mid-1900, signs of increased fumarole activity were present in the Étang Sec (Dry Pond) crater near the summit. [15] Relatively minor phreatic (steam) eruptions that occurred in 1792 and 1851 were evidence that the volcano was active and potentially dangerous. Local natives, the Carib people, knew it as “fire mountain” from previous eruptions in ancient times.

Mount Pelée began its eruptions on 23 April 1902. In early April, excursionists noted the appearance of sulfurous vapors emitting from fumaroles near the mountaintop. This was not regarded as important, as fumaroles had appeared and disappeared in the past.

On 23 April the mountain caused a light rain of cinders on its southern and western side, together with sharp underground shocks.

On 25 April the mountain emitted a large cloud containing rocks and ashes from its top, where the Étang Sec caldera was located. The ejected material did not cause a significant amount of damage.

On 26 April the area was dusted by volcanic ash from an eruption; the public authorities still did not see a reason to worry.

On 27 April several excursionists climbed the mountaintop to find Étang Sec filled with water, forming a lake 180 m (590 ft) across. There was a 15 m (50 ft) high cone of volcanic debris built up on one side, feeding the lake with a steady stream of boiling water. Sounds resembling a cauldron with boiling water were heard from deep underground. The strong smell of sulfur was all over the city, 6.4 km (4.0 mi) away from the volcano, causing discomfort to people and horses.

On 30 April Rivière des Pères and the river Roxelane swelled, carrying boulders and trees from the mountaintop. The villages of Prêcheur and Sainte-Philomène received a steady stream of ash.

At 11:30 p.m. on 2 May the mountain produced loud explosions, earthquakes and a massive pillar of dense black smoke. Ashes and fine-grained pumice covered the entire northern half of the island. The detonation continued in 5–6 hour intervals. This led the local newspaper Les Colonies to indefinitely postpone the proposed picnic on the mountain, originally planned for May 4. Farm animals started dying from hunger and thirst, as their sources of water and food were contaminated with ash.

On Saturday, 3 May the wind blew the ash cloud northwards, alleviating the situation in Saint-Pierre. The next day the ash fall intensified, and the communication between Saint-Pierre and the Prêcheur district was severed. The ash cloud was so dense that the coastal boats feared to navigate through it. Many citizens decided to flee the city, filling the steamer lines to capacity. The area was covered with a layer of fine, flour-like white ash.

On Monday, 5 May the mountain apparently calmed down somewhat; however, at about 1:00 p.m., the sea suddenly receded about 100 metres (330 ft) and then rushed back, flooding parts of the city, and a large cloud of smoke appeared westwards of the mountain. One wall of the Étang Sec crater collapsed and propelled a mass of boiling water and mud, or lahar , into Blanche River, flooded the Guérin sugar works and buried about 150 victims under 60 metres (200 ft) to 90 metres (300 ft) of mud. Refugees from other areas rushed into Saint-Pierre. That night, the atmospheric disturbances disabled the electric grid , sank the city into darkness and added to the confusion.

The next day, at about 02:00, loud sounds were heard from within the depth of the mountain.

On Wednesday, 7 May at around 04:00, the mountain stepped up its activity; the clouds of ash caused numerous bolts of volcanic lightning around the mountaintop, and both the craters glowed reddish orange into the night. Through the day, people were leaving the city, but more people from the countryside were attempting to find refuge in the city, increasing its population by several thousand. The newspapers still claimed the city was safe. News of the volcano Soufrière erupting on the nearby Saint Vincent island reassured the people that the internal pressures in the mountain were being relieved. Not everyone was reassured. Captain Marina Leboffe, of the barque Orsolina, left the harbor with only half of the sugar cargo loaded, despite shippers’ protests, clearance refused by the port authorities, and threats of being arrested, as were many other civilians refused permission to exit town. [14] Governor Louis Mouttet and his wife stayed in the city. By the evening, the mountain’s tremors seemed to calm down again.

1902 eruption

1902 eruption

Saint Pierre before the eruption

Remains of St Pierre

Evacuees on Rue du Pavé, Fort-de-France after 1902 eruption, photographed by William H. Rau

The main eruption[ edit ]

On 8 May 1902, a volcanic eruption destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre , about 6.4 kilometres (4.0 mi) south of the summit.

In the morning, people were observing the fireworks the mountain was displaying. The night shift telegraph operator was sending the reports of the volcano’s activity to the operator at Fort-de-France , claiming no significant new developments; his last transmission at 07:52 was “Allez”, handing over the line to the remote operator. [16] In the next second, the telegraph line went dead. A cable repair ship had the city in direct view; the upper mountainside ripped open and a dense black cloud shot out horizontally. [14] A second black cloud rolled upwards, forming a gigantic mushroom cloud and darkening the sky in a 50-mile (80 km) radius. The initial speed of both clouds was later calculated to be over 670 kilometres (420 mi) per hour.
The horizontal pyroclastic surge hugged the ground and sped down towards the city of Saint-Pierre, appearing black and heavy, glowing hot from the inside. It consisted of superheated steam and volcanic gases and dust, with temperatures exceeding 1,075 °C (1,967 °F). In under a minute it reached and covered the entire city, instantly igniting everything combustable with which it came in contact.

A rush of wind followed, this time towards the mountain. Then came a half-hour downpour of muddy rain mixed with ashes. For the next several hours, all communication with the city was severed. Nobody knew what was happening, nor who had authority over the island, as the governor was unreachable and his status unknown.

There are unnamed eyewitnesses to the eruption, probably survivors on the boats at the time of the eruption. One eyewitness said “the mountain was blown to pieces, there was no warning,” while another said “it was like a giant oil refinery .” One person even went as far to say that “the town vanished before our eyes.” [17]

The area devastated by the pyroclastic cloud covered about 21 km2 (8 sq mi), with the city of Saint-Pierre taking the brunt of the damage.

At the time of the eruption, Saint-Pierre had a population of about 28,000, which had swollen with refugees from the minor explosions and mud flows first emitted by the volcano. Legend has previously reported that out of the 30,000 in the city, there were only two survivors: Louis-Auguste Cyparis , a felon held in an underground cell in the town’s jail for wounding a friend with a cutlass , and Léon Compère-Léandre , a man who lived at the edge of the city. [14] In reality, there were a number of survivors who made their way out of the fringes of the blast zone. Many of these survivors were horribly burned, and some died later from their injuries. A number made their way to Le Carbet, just south of St. Pierre behind a ridge that protected that town from the worst of the pyroclastic flow; survivors were rescued on the beach there by Martinique officials. [18]

Compère-Léandre stated the following when asked about his survival:

I felt a terrible wind blowing, the earth began to tremble, and the sky suddenly became dark. I turned to go into the house, with great difficulty climbed the three or four steps that separated me from my room, and felt my arms and legs burning, also my body. I dropped upon a table. At this moment four others sought refuge in my room, crying and writhing with pain, although their garments showed no sign of having been touched by flame. At the end of 10 minutes one of these, the young Delavaud girl, aged about 10 years, fell dead; the others left. I got up and went to another room, where I found the father Delavaud, still clothed and lying on the bed, dead. He was purple and inflated, but the clothing was intact. Crazed and almost overcome, I threw myself on a bed, inert and awaiting death. My senses returned to me in perhaps an hour, when I beheld the roof burning. With sufficient strength left, my legs bleeding and covered with burns, I ran to Fonds-Saint-Denis, six kilometers from Saint-Pierre. [14]

One woman, a housemaid, also survived the pyroclastic flow but perished soon after. She said that the only thing she remembered from the event was sudden heat. She died very shortly after being discovered. A third reported survivor was Havivra Da Ifrile, a 10-year-old girl who had rowed to shelter in a cave. Included among the victims were the passengers and crews of several ships docked at Saint-Pierre.

One passenger steamship, the Roraima, which went missing on 26 April, was believed to have been engulfed by ash from a preliminary explosion. However, it reached the port of Saint-Pierre at 06:30, shortly before the eruption, and was set aflame by the pyroclastic flow. It later sank; its wreck is still present offshore of Saint-Pierre. Twenty-eight of her crew, and all the passengers except two (a little girl and her creole nurse), were killed by the cloud. [14]

Relief[ edit ]

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At about 12:00 the acting governor of Martinique sent the warship Suchet to investigate what had happened and the warship arrived off the burning town at about 12.30. The fierce heat beat back landing parties until nearly 15:00, when the captain came ashore on the Place Bertin, the tree-shaded square with cafés near the center of town. Not a tree was standing; the denuded trunks, scorched and bare, lay prone, torn out by the roots. The ground was littered with dead. Fire and a suffocating stench prevented any deeper exploration of the burning ruins.

Meanwhile, a number of survivors had been plucked from the sea by small boats; they were sailors who had been blown into the water by the impact of the blast, and who had clung to wreckage for hours. All were badly burned. In the village of Carbet, shielded from the fiery cloud by a high promontory at the southern end of the city, were more victims, also horribly burned; few of these lived longer than a few hours.

The area of devastation covered about eight square miles. Inside this area, the annihilation of life and property was total; outside was a second, clearly defined zone where there were casualties, but the material damage was less, while beyond this lay a strip in which vegetation was scorched but life was spared.

Many victims were in casual attitudes, their features calm and reposeful, indicating that death had overtaken them without warning and without pain; others were contorted in anguish. The clothing had been torn from nearly all the victims struck down outdoors. Some houses were almost pulverized; it was impossible even for persons familiar with the city to identify the foundations of the city landmarks.
The city burned for days. Sanitation parties penetrated the calcined ruins bit by bit, to dispose of the dead by burning; burial was out of the question. The stench was sickening. Thousands of victims lay under a shroud of ashes, heaped in windrows several feet deep, caked by the rains; many of these bodies were not retrieved for weeks, and few were identifiable.

The United States quickly offered help to Martinique authorities. On 12 May, US president Theodore Roosevelt instructed the Secretaries of War , Navy , and Treasury to start relief measures at once. [19] U.S. cruiser Cincinnati , lying at Santo Domingo , and the Navy tug Potomac at San Juan , Puerto Rico , were ordered to proceed to the disaster area as soon as possible. President Roosevelt asked Congress for an immediate appropriation of $500,000 for emergency assistance to the victims of the calamity. The President said: “One of the greatest calamities in history has befallen our neighboring island of Martinique … The city of St. Pierre has ceased to exist … The government of France … informs us that Fort-de-France and the entire island of Martinique are still threatened. They therefore request that, for the purpose of rescuing the people who are in such deadly peril and threatened with starvation, the government of the United States may send as soon as possible the means of transporting them from the stricken island.” The US Congress voted for $200,000 of immediate assistance and set hearings to determine what larger sum might be needed when the full nature of the disaster could be learned. In an appeal for public funds the President empowered postmasters to receive donations for relief of the victims; a national committee of prominent citizens took charge of chartering supply ships.

Canada , the UK , Germany , France , Italy , Denmark , Japan , Russia and the Vatican also offered help.

Subsequent activity[ edit ]

Main Street, Le Morne-Rouge, after the August 30 eruption

On 20 May 1902, a second eruption equal to the first one in both type and force obliterated what was left of Saint-Pierre, killing 2000 rescuers, engineers, and mariners bringing supplies to the island. [20] During a powerful eruption on August 30, 1902, a pyroclastic flow extended further east than the flows of 8 and 20 May. Although not quite as powerful as the previous two eruptions, the August 30 pyroclastic flow struck Morne Rouge (at least 800 fatalities), [21] Ajoupa-Bouillon [22] (250 fatalities), [21] and parts of Basse-Pointe (25 fatalities) and Morne-Capot (10 fatalities). [21] A tsunami caused some damage in Carbet. [22] To date, this was the last fatal eruption of Mount Pelée. [21]

The study of the causes of the disaster marked the beginning of modern volcanology with the definition and the analysis of the deadliest volcanic hazard: the pyroclastic flows and surges, also known as nuées ardentes ( Fr : burning clouds). The eruption also lent its name to the ” Peléan eruption style”. Among those who studied Mount Pelée were Angelo Heilprin and Antoine Lacroix . Lacroix was the first to describe the nuée ardente (pyroclastic flow) phenomenon. [23] [24]

The destruction caused by the 1902 eruption was quickly publicized by recent modern means of communication. It brought to the attention of the public and governments the hazards and dangers of an active volcano.

Mount Pelée continued to erupt until 4 July 1905. Thereafter, the volcano took a rest and gave off no more than steam until 1929. [25]

On 16 September 1929, Mount Pelée began to erupt again. This time, there was no hesitation on the part of authorities and the danger area was immediately evacuated. Although there were pyroclastic flows, the activity was not as violent as the 1902 activity. It culminated in another “spine” or lava plug, albeit smaller than the 1902 plug, being emplaced at the summit. The activity ended in late 1932. [26]

Volcanic spine[ edit ]

The volcanic spine of Mount Pelée

Beginning in October 1902, a dramatic volcanic spine grew from the crater floor in the Étang Sec crater, reaching a maximum width of about 100 to 150 m (300 to 500 ft) and a height of about 300 m (1,000 ft). Called the “Needle of Pelée” or “Pelée’s Tower”, this extraordinary volcanic feature rose up to 15 m (50 ft) a day, and became twice the height of the Washington Monument and more or less the same volume as the Great Pyramid of Egypt . It became unstable and collapsed into a pile of rubble in March 1903, [27] after 5 months of growth.

Current status[ edit ]

As of 2013 [update] , the volcano currently lies quiescent above Saint-Pierre and Martinique. Before the 1902 eruption—as early as the summer of 1900—signs of increased fumarole activity were present in the Étang Sec crater (Scarth, p. 30). Relatively minor phreatic (steam) eruptions that occurred in 1792 and 1851 were evidence that the volcano was active. Signs of unrest will almost certainly precede any future eruptive activity from Mount Pelée, and its past activity (including the violent eruptions uncovered by carbon dating ) is an extremely important factor for hazard assessment. [28]

A few volcanic earthquakes occur on Martinique every year, but Mount Pelée is under continuous watch by geophysicists and volcanologists ( IPGP ). As researcher Jean-Pierre Viode states, the volcanic observatory on Martinique would be able to observe activity months before an actual eruption. [29]

The city of Saint-Pierre was never fully rebuilt, though some villages grew up in its place. The estimated population of Commune of Saint-Pierre in 2004 was 4,544.

Biology[ edit ]

27 May 1902

The Martinique volcano frog, Allobates chalcopis , is endemic to Mount Pelée, [30] and the only species among related frogs (family Aromobatidae ) endemic to an oceanic island. [31]

In literature[ edit ]

  • The Day The World Ended by Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan Witts (Stein and Day, 1969, 306 pp). The authors used contemporary records and survivor accounts to construct a historically accurate novel of the events and lives of residents of Martinique, leading up to and through the tragic eruption of May 8, 1902.
  • Texaco by Patrick Chamoiseau (Gallimard, 1992. Trans. Rose-Myriam Réjouis and Val Vinokurov, Vintage International, 1998). In this novel that retraces several generations of Martinique’s history, Esternome, the protagonist of the novel’s first part, witnesses firsthand the destruction caused by the volcano. Marie-Sophie Laborieux, Esternome’s daughter and the novel’s narrator, recounts her father’s experiences and also discusses the traces of this event she has seen herself, including burn scars on her father’s body and ossuaries in the ruins of Saint-Pierre. The eruption and its aftermath are discussed in the section “Amour grillée” (“Barbecued Love”).
  • Heat, by Jean Rhys.
  • Martinique Island by Rex Bestle. Based on the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee, that erupted on May 8, 1902 killing 30,000 people & destroyed the town of St. Pierre.
  • The Voice of the Mountain is a popular price, sensational melodrama by Cecil Frederick which opened in May 1904 at New York City’s Third Avenue Theater. The eruption of the volcano takes place in the climactic scene, as the hero and villain are locked in a life-and-death,hand-to-hand fight on the very lip of the volcano. Not surprisingly the villain tumbles into the smoking, belching pit. [Gerald Bordman, American Theatre: Chronicling the Comedy and Drama, 1869-1914, Oxford University Press, 1994. Also: the script of the play from University of Washington, Special Collections, The Sherman Collection.]

See also[ edit ]

  • List of volcanic eruptions by death toll
  • List of volcanoes in Martinique
  • Mount Pinatubo
  • Mount Vesuvius

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ “La Montagne Pelée” . Observatoire volcanologique et sismologique de la Martinique (in French). Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. Retrieved 8 March 2017.

  2. ^ “Pelee” . Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . 15 February 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  3. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La Catastrophe: The Eruption of Mount Pelee, the Worst Volcanic Eruption of the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN   0-19-521839-6 .
  4. ^ a b c d e “Mount Pelee” . Mount-pelee.com.
  5. ^ https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/stratoguide/glossary.html
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Wright, Pierson (1992). USGS Circular 1073. USGS . p. 39.
  8. ^ Tilling (1985). Volcanoes. USGS . pp. 16–17.
  9. ^ “USGS document of the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelee” . USGS . Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  10. ^ Tilling (1985). Volcanoes. USGS .
  11. ^ Blong, R.J. (1984). Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press.
  12. ^ Wright,Pierson (1992). Living With Volcanoes: USGS Circular 1073. USGS .
  13. ^ Heilprin, Angelo (1903). Mont Pelee And The Tragedy Of Martinique . Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  14. ^ a b c d e f “The eruption of Mount Pelee” . SDSU .
  15. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La Catastrophe. Oxford. p. 30.
  16. ^ Zebrowski Jr., Ernest; The Last Days of St. Pierre-The Volcanic Disaster that Claimed 30,000 Lives; P. 128; Rutgers University Press: 2002
  17. ^ Staff. “Mt. Pelee” . Windows to the universe.
  18. ^ La Catastrophe; Alwyn Scarth; 2002: Oxford Press; pp 129–136
  19. ^ “Government Relief Work: How the War and Navy Departments Have Divided it—Merchant Vessels May Be Chartered”. The New York Times. May 14, 1902.
  20. ^ http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/history-of-geology/2012/05/08/may-8-1902-la-pelee/
  21. ^ a b c d Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La Catastrophe. Oxford. pp. 212–218.
  22. ^ a b Notes, Nature No.1714 Vol.66. 1902.
  23. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La Catastrophe. Oxford. p. 207.
  24. ^ Lacroix, Antoine (1904). La Montagne Pelée et ses Eruptions [Mount Pelée and its eruptions] (in French). vol. 1. Paris, France: Masson. p. 38. From vol. 1, p. 38: After describing on p. 37 the eruption of a “dense, black cloud” (nuée noire), Lacroix coins the term nuée ardente : “Peu après l’éruption de ce que j’appellerai désormais la nuée ardente, un immense nuage de cendres couvrait l’ile tout entière, la saupoudrant d’une mince couche de débris volcaniques.” (Shortly after the eruption of what I will call henceforth the dense, glowing cloud [nuée ardente], an immense cloud of cinders covered the entire island, sprinkling it with a thin layer of volcanic debris.)
  25. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La Catastrophe. Oxford. p. 221.
  26. ^ Zebrowski Jr., Ernest; The Last Days of St. Pierre-The Volcanic Disaster that Claimed 30,000 Lives; P. 268; Rutgers University Press: 2002
  27. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La Catastrophe. Oxford. pp. 219–221.
  28. ^ “Pelee: Eruptive History” . Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution .
  29. ^ http://www.geotimes.org/may02/geophen.html
  30. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). “Allobates chalcopis (Kaiser, Coloma, and Gray, 1994)” . Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  31. ^ Fouquet, A.; Pineau, K. V.; Rodrigues, M. T.; Mailles, J.; Schneider, J. B.; Ernst, R.; Dewynter, M. L. (2013). “Endemic or exotic: The phylogenetic position of the Martinique Volcano Frog Allobates chalcopis (Anura: Dendrobatidae) sheds light on its origin and challenges current conservation strategies”. Systematics and Biodiversity. 11: 87–101. doi : 10.1080/14772000.2013.764944 .

External links[ edit ]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mount Pelée .
  • The eruption of Pelée : a summary and discussion of the phenomena and their sequels , Angelo Heilprin, Linpincott, 1908.
  • Eruption of Mt. Pelée (1902)
  • “A Pioneering Volcanologist Narrowly Beats the Reaper”
  • La montagne Pelée
  • Photos of Mt. Pelée volcanic rocks (with text in French) retrieved 2009-05-17
  • “The Destruction in Martinique” . The World’s Work: A History of Our Time . II: 2267–2268d. June 1902. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
  • LATELY THOMAS (August 1961). “PRELUDE to DOOMSDAY” . American Heritage Magazine. 12 (5). Archived from the original on 2006-07-10.
  • Mt. Pelee volcano, St. Pierre, Martinique 61 digitized photographs of the Mt. Pelée volcano eruption, May 1902.
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      Mount Pelée

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      Home / Mount Pelée

      At 1,397 meters, Mount Pelée is the highest peak in Martinique

      img_mount-pelee-salomon.jpg

      Mount Pelee Martinique

      Beneath its calm exterior, it remains an active volcano, as evidenced by the hot water springs located on its western face. But rest assured! The last eruption took place in 1929, and underground activity is continuously monitored by the Morne des Cadets observatory, which houses one of the largest seismographs in the world.

      This region gained its place in history quite dramatically on the morning of May 8, 1902, when the eruption of Mount Pelée, one of the most lethal natural disasters of the 20th century, killed the 30,000 inhabitants of Saint-Pierre in a matter of only minutes.

      Today, the Franck Perret museum in Saint-Pierre, the regional volcano center in Morne-Rouge or the geosciences discovery center, set up in an exceptional paraseismic building, will tell you the complete history of Mt. Pelée's eruptions.

      There are several paths allowing exploration of the volcanic peaks that unleashed the eruptions of 1902 and 1929. Hikers can tackle the summit from the face, which overhangs the Caribbean Ocean. This route opens onto exceptional views of Saint-Pierre and the coast. The north slope offers a great variety of landscapes, ranging from banana plantations and tropical forests to vast, wind-swept spaces. The route most favored by hikers, past the Aileron and the plateau des Palmistes, begins in the parking area located on the eastern face of the mountain.

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      Mount Pelée

      volcano, Martinique
      Written By:
      • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
      See Article History
      Alternative Title:Montagne Pelée

      Mount Pelée, French Montagne Pelée, active volcanic mountain on the Caribbean island of Martinique . Situated 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Fort-de-France , it reaches an elevation of 4,583 feet (1,397 metres). Pelée, whose name is a French term meaning “Bald,” consists of layers of volcanic ash and lavas. Its gently sloping cone is scored with ravines and supports luxuriant forests. Minor eruptions occurred in 1792 and 1851, but on May 8, 1902, it violently destroyed the port of Saint-Pierre, killing approximately 30,000 people, 15 percent of the island’s population. So dramatic was this event that the name of the mountain has been adopted (as in the term pelean) to describe that particular kind of eruption of ash, gas, and deadly nuée ardente (“fiery cloud”). A minor eruption occurred in 1929.

      Mount Pelée, Martinique.
      Mount Pelée, Martinique.© Albert Barr/Shutterstock.com

      Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

      • Mount St. Helens volcano, viewed from the south during its eruption on May 18, 1980.
        volcano: Four worst eruptions in history
        …occurred a violent eruption of Mount Pelée, a stratovolcano on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea. Although less than 1 cubic km (0.24 cubic mile) of magma was erupted, much of it formed a high-velocity pyroclastic flow that swept down a steep valley to the port of Saint-Pierre.…
      • Mount St. Helens volcano, viewed from the south during its eruption on May 18, 1980.
        volcano: Six types of eruptions
        …for the destructive eruption of Mount Pelée on the Caribbean island of Martinique in 1902. The fluidized slurries produced by these eruptions are heavier than air but are of low viscosity and pour down valleys and slopes at great velocities. As a result, they are extremely destructive.…
      • France
        Martinique: Relief and drainage
        These are an active volcano, Mount Pelée, which rises to 4,583 feet (1,397 metres), to the north; the Carbet Mountains, of which Lacroix Peak reaches 3,923 feet (1,195 metres), in the centre; and Mount Vauclin, rising to 1,654 feet (504 metres), in the south.…
      • pyroclastic flow
        pyroclastic flow
        …swept down the slopes of Mount Pelée and incinerated the small port city of Saint-Pierre, killing all but two of its 29,000 residents.…
      • Saint-Pierre
        Saint-Pierre
        …until May 8, 1902, when Mount Pelée erupted, killing all but two inhabitants of the town—a prisoner in a strong underground jail cell and a shoemaker whose house sat at the edge of the pyroclastic flow (a downslope-moving fluidized mix of volcanic materials). Some 30,000 people died. Rebuilding has been…

      ADDITIONAL MEDIA

      • Saint-Pierre

      More About Mount Pelée

      5 references found in Britannica articles

      Assorted References

        • destruction of Saint-Pierre
          • In Saint-Pierre
        • eruption of 1902
          • In volcano: Four worst eruptions in history
        • geography of Martinique
          • In Martinique: Relief and drainage
        • Pelean eruptions
          • In volcano: Six types of eruptions
        • pyroclastic flows
          • In pyroclastic flow

        Article History

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        • Denali
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        • Paricutín
        • Mount Whitney
        • Mount Shasta
        • Mount Hood
        • Pikes Peak
        • Mount Washington
        • Popocatépetl
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        Pelee

        • Pelee
        Latitude (dd): 
        14.82
        Longitude (dd): 
        -61.17
        Elevation (m): 
        1397
        Country: 
        France
        State (Province, etc): 
        West Indies
        Type: 
        Stratovolcano
        Google Maps
        Articles

         

        Mt. Pelee, a stratovolcano made mostly of  pyroclastic  rocks, is on the north end of the island of Martinique. Martinique is part of the Lesser Antilles   volcanic arc . The arc is formed by the subduction of the North American Plate under the Caribbean Plate. Space Shuttle photo of Martinique with Mt. Pelee on the north (left) end of the island.

        Mt. Pelee is famous for the May 8, 1902 eruption which killed 29,000 people and destroyed the city of St. Pierre. This is the largest number of  casualities  for a volcanic eruption this century. Photograph of Mt. Pelee by Heilprin, May 26, 1902.

        The destruction was caused by a  nuee ardente , a type of pyroclastic flow that consists of hot incandescent solid particles. Photograph of a pyroclastic flow by Heilprin, 1902.

        Photograph of the remains of St. Pierre by Heilprin, 1902. 

        Continued on Page 2

        Sources of Information:

        Fisher, R.V., and Heiken, G., 1982, Mt. Pelee, Martinique; May 8 and 20, 1902, pyroclastic flows and surges: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 13, p. 339-371.

        Fisher, R.V., Smith, A.L., and Roobol, M.J., 1980, Destruction of St. Pierre, Martinique by ash -cloud surges, May 8 and 20, 1902: Geology, v. 8, p. 472-476.

        Heilprin, A., 1908, The eruption of Pelee: Philadelphia Geographic Society, 72 p.

        Hirn, A., Girardin, N., Viode, J.-P., and Eschenbrenner, S., 1987, Shallow seismicity at Montagne Pelee volcano, Martinique, Lesser Antilles: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 49, p. 723-728.

        Lacroix, A., 1904, La Montagne Pelee et ses eruptions: Paris, Masson et Cie, 622 p.

        Perret, F.A., 1937, The eruption of Mt. Pelee, 1929-1932: Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication, v. 458, 126 p.

        Robson, G.R., and Tomlin, J.F., 1966, Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world, including Solfatara fields; Part 20, West Indies: Rome, International Association of Volcanology, 56 p.

        Smith, A.L., and Roobol, M.J., 1990, Mt. Pelee, Martinique; A study of an active island-arc volcano: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Memoir 175, 105 p.

        Westercamp, D., and Traineau, H., 1983, The past 5,000 years of volcanic activity at M. Pelee, Martinique (F.W.I.); Implications for assessment of volcanic hazards: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 17, p.159-185.