GFR Calculator eGFR Calculator

GFR Calculator eGFR Calculator

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GFR Calculator

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best overall index of kidney function. Normal GFR varies according to age, sex, and body size, and declines with age. The National Kidney Foundation recommends using the CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation (2009) to estimate GFR.

Results

CKD-EPI creatinine equation (2009)mL/min
CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin equation (2012)mL/min
CKD-EPI cystatin C equation (2012)mL/min
MDRD study equationmL/min

For persons under 18 years of age, use the pediatric GFR calculator .

Is it CKD?

Either of the following must be present for ≥3 months to be CKD:

  • GFR less than 60 ≥3 months
  • ACR ≥30 mg/g or other markers of kidney damage

Click to learn more .

Equation used to estimate GFR?




What is the patient’s ACR?†










Based on the information supplied:

GFR category is:‡   see note below
ACR category is:**
CKD classification is:
Risk of progression is:
Frequency of monitoring should be:
Referral to a nephrologist is:

In the absence of evidence of kidney damage, neither GFR category G1 nor G2 fulfill the criteria for CKD.

† Neither the category of GFR nor the category of albuminuria alone can fully capture prognosis of CKD. Persistent and increased albuminuria has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CKD progression.

‡In the absence of evidence of kidney damage, neither GFR category G1 nor G2 fulfill the criteria for CKD.

**ACR 30-300 mg/g for > 3 months indicates CKD.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Formulas

  • CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation (2009)
  • CKD-EPI Creatinine-Cystatin Equation (2012)
  • CKD-EPI Cystatin C Equation (2012)
  • MDRD Study Equation
  • Learn more about CKD-EPI Collaboration and estimating GFR at www.ckdepi.org .

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The Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS)Neurology / Neurosurgery, Critical Care • Assess level of consciousness in the intensive care unit. Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: ATRIA Cardiology • Estimate bleeding risk for patients on warfarin. DIPSS Plus Score for Prognosis in MyelofibrosisHematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in myelofibrosis. Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Carotid EndarterectomyCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomy GAD-7 Anxiety ScaleMental Health, Geriatrics • Screen for generalized anxiety disorder Polymyalgia Rheumatica (2012 EULAR/ACR Provisional Criteria)Rheumatology, Geriatrics • Review EULAR/ACR criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica Scleroderma/Systemic Sclerosis (2013 EULAR/ACR Criteria)Rheumatology • Review EULAR/ACR criteria for scleroderma San Francisco Syncope RuleCardiology, Geriatrics • Identify those at low risk of adverse outcome after a syncopal episode Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | EVARCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after EVAR Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Infra-inguinal BypassCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after infra-inguinal bypass Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Open AAA RepairCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after open AAA repair VQI: Respiratory Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryRespirology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgery FIB-4 for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatic FibrosisGastroenterology • Non-invasively identify hepatic fibrosis APRI (AST to Platelet Ratio Index)Gastroenterology • Assess likelihood of fibrosis or cirrhosis non-invasively using AST and platelet count. PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismEmergency, Urology, Respirology, Hematology, Medical Imaging • Use the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%. RPDAI (Relapsing Polychondritis Disease Activity Index)Cardiology, Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in relapsing polychondritis. Revised Venous Clinical Severity ScoreVascular Surgery • Assess severity of venous disease. BISAP ScoreGastroenterology, Critical Care • Estimate disease severity in acute pancreatitis. SLEDAI-2KNephrology, Rheumatology • Assess disease activity in lupus SLICC/ACR Damage IndexRheumatology • Measure accumulated damage since onset of lupus Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI)Gastroenterology, Surgery • Assess disease activity in Crohn’s disease International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)Urology, Geriatrics • Assess severity of symptoms in benign prostatic hypertrophy Mayo Early Screen for Discharge PlanningMedical Administration • Identify patients needing specialized discharge planning services Mayo Score for Ulcerative Colitis ActivityGastroenterology, Surgery • Assess disease activity in ulcerative colitis NAFLD Fibrosis ScoreGastroenterology • Reduce the need for liver biopsy by identifying patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease likely or unlikely to have advanced fibrosis Dialysis Duration Needed for Methanol IngestionNephrology • Estimate dialysis duration required for methanol poisoning Dialysis Duration Needed for Ethylene Glycol IngestionNephrology • Estimate dialysis duration required for ethylene glycol poisoning Total Body Water (Watson Formula)Nephrology NEXUS Chest Decision Instrument for Blunt Chest TraumaSurgery, Medical Imaging • Assess the need for chest imaging after blunt trauma Chronic Kidney Disease Management: BC GuidelinesNephrology • Primary care management of CKD
Supported by Shared Care Committee of BC HOSPITAL ScoreMedical Administration • Determine risk of avoidable hospital readmission Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (R-ISS)Hematology, Oncology • Revised international staging system for myeloma Injury Severity ScoreEmergency, Orthopedics, Surgery • Describe severity of traumatic injury Brain Metastases Prognostic IndexOncology • Estimate prognosis in patients with brain metastases using the graded prognostic assessment MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsInfectious Disease, Gastroenterology, Transplant • Scoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system Corrected Sodium in HyperglycemiaNephrology • As used in the new MELD score, to correct Na in the setting of hyperglycemia Pediatric Renal Angina IndexNephrology, Critical Care • Predict acute kidney injury in critically ill children STARRT-AKI Enrollment CriteriaNephrology, Critical Care • Determine if patients meet criteria for the STARRT-AKI study. Serious Illness Conversation GuideOncology, Critical Care • Steps to elicit important information from your patients about their goals and values Kinetic eGFR (KeGFR)Nephrology, Critical Care • Estimate GFR when creatinine is changing acutely (either rising or falling) PIM2Nephrology, Pediatrics, Critical Care • Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised version Base ExcessNephrology • Used in assessing acid-base status Serious Renal Dysfunction Post-PCINephrology, Critical Care • Assess risk of dialysis or severe increase in creatinine after PCI DAPT ScoreCardiology • Which patients should remain on dual anti-platelet therapy 1 year following coronary stent treatment? PCDAIPediatrics, Gastroenterology • Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index CLL-IPIHematology, Oncology • The International Prognostic Index for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia Modified Marshall ScoreGastroenterology, Surgery • A definition of organ failure in acute pancreatitis International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5)Urology • Assess erectile dysfunction CRRT Dosing CalculatorNephrology, Critical Care • Calculate desired dose of dialysate in CRRT Modified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisEmergency, Gastroenterology, Surgery, Critical Care • Predict outcome in acute pancreatitis Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS)Cardiology, Emergency • Estimate prognosis among patients presenting to emergency with syncope Expected spleen size Hematology, Medical Imaging • Provides upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume by ultrasound relative to body height and gender.
NCDR AKI and Dialysis Risk after PCICardiology, Nephrology • Estimate risk of AKI and dialysis after PCI ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Total Kidney VolumeNephrology • Estimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Sponsored Padua Prediction Score for Risk of VTEHematology • Estimate risk of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 30-Day Stroke Risk Index for CEANeurology / Neurosurgery, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of stroke within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 1-Year Mortality Risk Index for CEANeurology / Neurosurgery, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate probability of death within 1 year after carotid endarterectomy MDS Revised – International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) Non-Age AdjustedHematology, Oncology • Assess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome using the non-age adjusted model
Sponsored Recognise Thrombotic MicroangiopathyNephrology, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Hematology
Sponsored by Alexion Pharma UK Identify Type of Thrombotic MicroangiopathyNephrology, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Hematology
Sponsored by Alexion Pharma UK Alcohol Relapse Risk after Liver TransplantGastroenterology, Transplant MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsInfectious Disease, Gastroenterology, Transplant • Scoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsEmergency, Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, Transplant • PELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsNephrology, Geriatrics, Transplant • Determine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 1 Year Post TransplantNephrology, Transplant • Estimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 7 Days Post TransplantNephrology, Transplant • Estimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted at Time of TransplantNephrology, Transplant • Estimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-geriatric version The SMAST-GMental Health, Geriatrics • Assess for problem alcohol drinking in the elderly CNS International Prognostic Index in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (CNS-IPI)Hematology, Oncology • Estimate risk of CNS relapse/progression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma MALT Lymphoma prognosis (MALT-IPI)Hematology, Oncology • Estimate prognosis in MALT lymphoma Khorana risk scoreHematology, Oncology • Estimate risk of chemotherapy-associated thrombosis Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Suprainguinal BypassCardiology, Vascular Surgery, Anesthesiology • Estimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after suprainguinal bypass PORT score for PeriOperative Risk of blood Transfusion in cardiac surgery by ACTAHematology, Cardiac Surgery, Anesthesiology • Predict risk of blood transfusion after elective cardiac surgery using the ACTA-PORT score PROPKD ScoreNephrology • Predict renal survival in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) using genetics
Sponsored MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment)Neurology / Neurosurgery • Measure level of disability in patients with migraines
ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Kidney DimensionsNephrology • Estimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Sponsored UKELD ScoreGastroenterology, Critical Care, Transplant • The United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) predicts prognosis in chronic liver disease and can be used to prioritize for liver transplantation Predicting 6 and 12 Month Mortality in CKD patientsNephrology • Estimate mortality in patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease. Geriatric-Sensitive Perioperative Cardiac Risk Index | GSCRICardiology, Urology, Surgery, Anesthesiology, Geriatrics • Estimate risk of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest in patients over 65 Vancomycin Dosing Based on eGFR (creatinine-cystatin C)Nephrology, Infectious Disease • Select an appropriate initial dose and interval for vancomycin taking into account renal function using cystatin C & creatinine Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) CriteriaNeurology / Neurosurgery • Diagnose neuromyelitis optica Advanced CKD after AKI Risk IndexNephrology • Estimate risk of advanced chronic kidney disease after acute kidney injury Mayo AKI Risk after Primary Total Hip ArthroplastyNephrology, Orthopedics • Estimate perioperative risk of acute kidney injury ROSIER scaleEmergency, Neurology / Neurosurgery • Determine which patients are likely to have true stroke vs stroke mimics Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2)Mental Health • Ultra-brief screening for depressive disorders ADviSED – Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score Plus D-Dimer for Aortic SyndromesCardiology, Emergency, Cardiac Surgery, Vascular Surgery • Rule out aortic dissection and other aortic syndromes Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15)Mental Health • Somatic Symptom Severity Scale Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS)Emergency, Critical Care • Identify patients who are at risk of clinical deterioration and who may require a higher level of care. PHASES ScoreNeurology / Neurosurgery • Predict risk of rupture for asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms Seizure vs SyncopeNeurology / Neurosurgery • Determine which patients are likely to have seizure versus syncope as the cause of loss of consciousness
BMI and BSA (Mosteller) • Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formula Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM)Mental Health • 5 question scale to screen and stage severity of hypomania/mania Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Postoperative Mortality Rate After Elective AAAVascular Surgery • Estimate risk of mortality after elective AAA repair Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise (AUDIT-C)General Calculators, Mental Health, Addiction Medicine • Brief screen to detecting heavy alcohol use Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)Mental Health • 11 question scale to grade the severity of mania Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)Mental Health, Addiction Medicine • Screen for active alcohol abuse or dependence Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)Mental Health • Ultra-Brief Screening for Anxiety and Depression Urine Anion Gap or Urine Net ChargeNephrology, Gastroenterology • Use urine electrolytes to differentiate renal tubular acidosis from diarrhea-induced non-anion gap metabolic acidosis CAGE QuestionnaireMental Health, Addiction Medicine • 4 question screening for alcohol problems Multiple Sclerosis DiagnosisNeurology / Neurosurgery • Diagnose Relapsing-Remitting MS using the 2017 McDonald Criteria Lille Model for Alcoholic HepatitisGastroenterology • Estimate mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to corticosteroid therapy
CLL BALL Score for Relapsed/Refractory CLLHematology, Oncology Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Emergency, Critical Care • Calculate MAP Smith-Modified Sgarbossa’s Criteria for MI in Left Bundle Branch BlockEmergency • Diagnose acute MI in patients with known LBBB Sgarbossa’s Criteria for MI in Left Bundle Branch BlockCardiology, Emergency • Allows for the diagnosis of acute MI in patients with known LBBB Centor Score (modified) for GAS PharyngitisEmergency, Infectious Disease, Pediatrics • Estimate likelihood of GAS pharyngitis ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Kidney DimensionsNephrology • Estimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease using kidney dimensions
Sponsored ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Total Kidney VolumeNephrology • Estimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease using total kidney volume
Sponsored Philadelphia Criteria in Febrile Infants Emergency, Pediatrics • Identify febrile infants aged 29 – 56 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Boston Criteria for Febrile InfantsEmergency, Infectious Disease, Pediatrics • Identify febrile infants aged 28 – 89 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Rochester Criteria for Febrile InfantsEmergency, Infectious Disease, Pediatrics • Identify febrile infants aged ≤ 60 days old who are low-risk for serious bacterial infection PECARN Rule for Pediatric Head Injury < 2 years oldEmergency, Pediatrics • Assess the need for neuroimaging in pediatric head trauma PECARN Rule for Pediatric Head Injury ≥ 2 years oldEmergency, Pediatrics • Assess the need for neuroimaging in pediatric head trauma BE3A ScoreInfectious Disease, Gastroenterology • When to treat HCV in decompensated cirrhosis Reducing Vascular Risk in Patients Living with DiabetesEndocrinology • Determine which patients with diabetes require vascular protective therapy
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS)Mental Health • 7 question scale to grade panic disorder severity Physical Activity Decision Tool for Patients Living DiabetesEndocrinology • Assess your patient’s physical ability and level of motivation to start and/or progress through a physical activity program.
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Individualizing Your Patient’s A1c TargetEndocrinology • Determine a patient-specific A1C target recommendation
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG)Endocrinology • Determine frequency of blood glucose monitoring
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Screening For And Diagnosing Diabetes – A1c and Fasting Plasma GlucoseEndocrinology • Determine risk of developing diabetes and frequency of screening required
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Pharmacotherapy for Type 2 DiabetesEndocrinology • Determine which type 2 diabetes medications are recommended based on patient characteristics.
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Screening For And Diagnosing Diabetes – 75g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)Endocrinology • Determine risk of developing diabetes and frequency of screening required
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT)Addiction Medicine • 9 question screener for substance use in adolescents TB Skin Test InterpretationRespirology, Infectious Disease • Determine likelihood of TB based on tuberculin skin test VQI EVAR Same-Day DischargeVascular Surgery SIRS Criteria (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)Emergency • Identify systemic inflammatory response to an infectious or non-infectious insult qSOFA Score in Septic PatientsEmergency • Predict patients at high-mortality risk from sepsis (not diagnose sepsis) Erasmus GBS Respiratory Insufficiency Score (EGRIS)Respirology, Neurology / Neurosurgery • Predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission, in individual patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Modified Erasmus GBS Outcome Score (EGOS) at hospital admissionNeurology / Neurosurgery • Predict probability of being unable to walk independently during follow up in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Score taken at hospital admission. Modified Erasmus GBS Outcome Score (EGOS) at day 7 of admissionNeurology / Neurosurgery • Predict the probability of being unable to walk independently during follow up in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Score taken after 7 days of hospital admission. COWS Score for Opiate Withdrawal Emergency, Addiction Medicine STOP-BANG Score for Obstructive Sleep ApneaRespirology, Anesthesiology • Screen for obstructive sleep apnea
Valsartan dose equivalenceCardiology • Useful for replacing Valsartan formulations affected by the 2018 recall Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​Mental Health • 5 questions to measure mental well-being Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)Mental Health, Geriatrics • 16 question geriatric cognitive screener Canadian Influenza Immunization GuideInfectious Disease • Adapted from Immunize Canada Major Depression Inventory (MDI)Mental Health • 12 question depression severity scale Identify Type of Thrombotic MicroangiopathyNephrology, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Hematology
Sponsored by Alexion Pharmaceuticals Recognise Thrombotic MicroangiopathyNephrology, Neurology / Neurosurgery, Hematology
Sponsored by Alexion Pharmaceuticals Screening For And Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)Endocrinology • Assess for gestational diabetes mellitus
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Alberta Croup SeverityEmergency, Infectious Disease, Pediatrics House BrackmannOtolaryngology (ENT) NYHA Functional ClassCardiology Bellucci ClassificationOtolaryngology (ENT) KDIGO AKI StagingNephrology, Critical Care • Classification in acute kidney injury (AKI) Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Anterior Dermatome MapNeurology / Neurosurgery Blood on MRINeurology / Neurosurgery Rule of NinesEmergency, Critical Care • Estimate surface area of burns Head and Neck Dermatome MapNeurology / Neurosurgery Posterior Dermatome MapNeurology / Neurosurgery Top View Dermatome MapNeurology / Neurosurgery Terms of Use – Web Spiriva Global privacy

REFERENCE BOOK

CSN PD Adequacy Guidelines and Recommendations 2011

Maintenance of RRF

Measurement of RRF Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretis to Preserve RRF

Small-Solute Clearance

Prescription and Targets

Volume Management

Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of Hypervolemia Treatment of Hypervolemia Assessment and Management of BP

Management of CV Disease in PD Patients

Dyslipidemia

Nutrition in PD

Nutrition Nutritional Supplements Correction of Impared Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis

Management of Hyperglycemia

Glycemic Control Glucose-Sparing Strategies

Introduction

Overview Methods and Process for Guideline Development Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Maintenance of RRF
Measurement of RRF

Overview

Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretics to Preserve RRF

Overview Background

Research

Overview

Small-Solute Clearance
Prescriptions and Targets

Overview Background

Volume Management
Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of Hypervolemia

Overview Background

Treatment of Hypervolemia

Overview Background

Assessment and Management of BP

Overview Background

Management of CV Disease in PD Patients
Dyslipidemia

Overview Background

Coronary Artery Disease/Chronic Heart Failure

Overview

Research

Overview

Nutrition in PD
Nutrition

Overview Background

Nutritional Supplements

Overview Background

Correction of Impaired Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis

Overview Background

Research

Overview

Management of Hyperglycemia
Glycemic Control

Overview Background

Glucose-Sparing Strategies

Overview Background Disclosures References

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Breast Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendation – Summary Clinical Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Clinician CBE BSE Recommendation Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Patient Algorithm   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 40-49   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 50-69   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 70-74   link ⇲ Informational Video   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cervical Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendation – Summary Clinical Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm   link ⇲ Clinician FAQ   link ⇲ Patient Algorithm   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hypertension | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (PDF)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm (PDF)   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Type 2 Diabetes | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

FINDRISC Diabetes Risk Calculator Clinician FAQ   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury

AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI

Introduction and Methodology
Introduction

Introduction Glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine Oliguria and anuria Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) ARF RIFLE criteria AKI: acute kidney injury/impairment Validation studies using RIFLE Limitations to current definitions for AKI Rationale for a guideline on AKI Summary

Methodology

Introduction Group member selection and meeting process Evidence selection, appraisal, and presentation Outcome selection judgments, values, and preferences Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations SPONSORSHIP DISCLAIMER SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI

Introduction Definition of AKI Staging AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material Risk assessment Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research recommendations Supplementary material

Clinical applications

Introduction Examples of application of AKI definitions Estimating baseline SCr Examples of application of AKI stages Urine output vs. SCr Timeframe for diagnosis and staging Clinical judgment Pseudo-AKI Atypical AKI Supplementary material

Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure

Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKD GFR and SCr GFR/SCr algorithm Oliguria as a measure of kidney function Kidney damage Small kidneys as a marker of kidney damage Integrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKD Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI

Introduction Fluids: Recommendations and Rationale Albumin vs. Saline Hydroxyethylstarch vs. Saline Vasopressors: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shock Goal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients Research Recommendations Supplementary material

General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications

Overview

Glycemic control and nutritional support

Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and Rationale Nutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKI Total Energy Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Protein Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Nutrition route: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatrics Considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

The use of diuretics in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Mannitol Research Recommendations

Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides

Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Natriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Growth factor intervention

Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and Rationale Erythropoietin Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Adenosine receptor antagonists

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI

Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity Treatment of Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale Topical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and Rationale Treatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill

On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations N-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and Rationale NAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary Material

Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis

Background Recommendations and Rationale Epidemiology of CI-AKI Prognosis of CI-AKI Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI

Recommendations and Rationale Risk-factor questionnaire Urinary protein screening Other risk factors of CI-AKI Risk models of CI-AKI Patients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Nephrotoxicity of Gd chelates Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) Supplementary Material

Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Introduction Dose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Route of administration of contrast media Research Recommendations Selection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and Rationale High-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media Low-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast media i.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglate i.v. Administration Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Fluid Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Use of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Role of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Theophylline: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam: Recommendations and Rationale Statins in the prevention of CI-AKI Supplementary Material

Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration

Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations

Research Recommendations

Supplementary material

Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction When to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and Rationale Use of diuretics: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations

Anticoagulation

Introduction How to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale In patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Uncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and Rationale When choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Using ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and Rationale Obtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and Rationale Topical antibiotics: Recommendations and Rationale Antibiotic locks: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI

Introduction Complementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and Rationale Hemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and Rationale AKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and Rationale Protocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRT Peritoneal dialysis Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI

Introduction Buffer solution: Recommendations and Rationale Dialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Dosing: Recommendations and Rationale Kt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and Rationale Additional considerations Research Recommendations Sponsorship Dislcaimer Supplementary material

Organization and Acknowledgements

Notice Work Group Membership KDIGO Board Members Reference Keys Abbreviations and Acronyms Abstract Foreword Biographic and Disclosure Information Acknowledgments References

REFERENCE BOOK

Tobacco Smoking in Children and Adolescents | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendations Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Colorectal Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Recommendations Table Clinician Summary Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cognitive Impairment | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Depression | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Algorithm & FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Developmental Delay | CTFPHCReview Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care guideline on screening for developmental delay

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Lung Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ 1000-Person Tool Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Obesity in Adults | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinician Algorithm – Calculator Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Obesity in Children | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Recommendation Table Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Pelvic Exam | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Recommendations – Full (Annals of Internal Medicine)   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Prostate Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Prostate Cancer Infographic 1000-Person Tool Patient FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CTFPHC Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening Video   link ⇲ Mike Evans Screening Video   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hepatitis C | CTFPHCReview Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care guideline on Hepatitis C screening

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

ADPKD Canadian Expert Consensus
Sponsored

Key Messages Introduction Genetic Testing in ADPKD Renal Imaging in ADPKD

Predicting Renal Progression

Methods to Predict Renal Progression Predicting Progression with the PROPKD Score Predicting Progression with Genetic Scoring Predicting Progression with the Mayo Classification

Treatment Options for ADPKD

Non-targeted Options for ADPKD ADPKD-Specific Treatment Options References PROPKD Calculator Mayo ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Kidney Dimensions Mayo ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Total Kidney Volume

REFERENCE BOOK

PD Prescription Quick Reference Guide
Sponsored

PD Prescription Body Surface Area Volume Distribution of Urea Membrane Transport Type Residual Kidney Function Disclaimer & Background Adequacy and Ultrafiltration Goals Volume of Distribution of Urea PET Calculations Assessment for Initial Prescription Preliminary Assessment of Drain Volume Individualizing Therapy Assumptions on which modelling is based EXTRANEAL (Icodextrin) PD Solution Important Risk Information References Peritoneal Dialysis Prescription Management Quick Reference Guide   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

PD Prescription Management Guide
Sponsored

Introduction

Fundamentals of the Prescription

Getting Started: Patient Pathway to First Prescription Residual Kidney Function urea) Formulas and Tables’);”>Volume of Distribution of Urea (Vurea) Formulas and Tables Peritoneal Membrane Type PET Calculations The Standard Peritoneal Equilibrium Test The Modified PET

The Process to Develop an Initial Prescription

Overview of the Prescription Management Process Assessment for Initial Prescription Preliminary Assessment of Drain Volume Suggested Timetable for Initial and Subsequent Clearance Measurements

Individualizing the Therapy

Overview Therapy Optimization Assumptions on Which Modeling Is Based Membrane Transport Characteristics and Preferred PD Modality Individualizing the Therapy

Monitoring the Therapy Long Term

Residual Kidney Function Volume Control Assessment of Volume Status Management of Hypervolemia Routine Clinic Visit Caveats About Serum Phosphorus and PD Overview

Appendix

Weekly Dialysis Clearance Cr)’);”>Creatinine Clearance (CCr) Routine Patient Assessment Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) Regimens (Examples) Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) Regimen International Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations

EXTRANEAL (Icodextrin) PD Solution, Important Risk Information, References & Contributors

EXTRANEAL (Icodextrin) PD Solution Important Risk Information References Contributors PD Prescription Management Guide   link ⇲ PD Prescription Body Surface Area Volume Distribution of Urea Membrane Transport Type Residual Kidney Function

REFERENCE BOOK

Access Care and Complications Management
Sponsored

Overview Disclaimer & Use of the Guide

Catheter Insertion and Care
Preoperative Management

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Perioperative and Intraoperative Management

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Postoperative Management

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Chronic Care of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Noninfectious Complications
Pericatheter and Subcutaneous Leaks

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation Management References

Peritoneal Catheter Obstruction

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Hernia

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Abdominal Discomfort During Infusion and Drain

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Pneumoperitoneum (Shoulder Pain)

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Hemoperitoneum

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Hydrothorax

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Catheter Adapter Disconnect or Fracture of Peritoneal Catheter

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Infectious Complications: Peritonitis Management
Initial Empiric Management of Peritonitis

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation Initial Empiric Management of Peritonitis Staphyloccocus aureus Peritonitis Enterococcus Peritonitis Streptococcus Peritonitis Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peritonitis Gram-negative Bacilli Organism Peritonitis Polymicrobial Peritonitis Culture-negative Peritonitis Fungal Peritonitis Mycobacterium Peritonitis Peritonitis Terminology Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Relapsing and Repeat Peritonitis References Disclaimer

Infectious Complications: Management of the Exit-site/Tunnel Infection
Introduction

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation Diagnosis and Management of Exit-site/Tunnel Infection References Disclaimer

Antibiotic Dosing Guidelines

Oral Antibiotics Used in Exit-site and Tunnel Infections Exit-site Antibiotic Prophylaxis Intraperitoneal Antibiotic Dosing Recommendations for CAPD Patients Intermittent Dosing of Antibiotics in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) References

Surgical Salvage Procedures for Infectious Complications
Simultaneous Catheter Replacement for Relapsing Peritonitis

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Exit-Site and Tunnel Infections

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Appendix

Preoperative and Postoperative PD Catheter Insertion Instructions for Patients Peritoneal Imaging Principles of Accurate Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Sampling and Culturing Peritoneal Effluent Culture Laboratory Processing Peritonitis Rate Calculations Differential Diagnosis of Non-infectious Cloudy Effluent Providing for a Safe Environment for Peritoneal Dialysis Normal Bacterial Flora of the Human Body

Preoperative Mapping

Introduction Preoperative Mapping Using a Catheter Sample Stencil-Based Preoperative Mapping Preoperative Mapping for Upper Abdominal and Presternal Catheters Procedure Day Mapping References Calculating Peritonitis Rates: An Example Author Affiliations Access Care and Complications Management   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Recommendation Table 1000-Person Tool Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Impaired Vision | CTFPHC

Summary of Recommendations for Clinicians and Policy-Makers Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Podcast   link ⇲ Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Guideline Presentation   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy | CTFPHC

Summary of Recommendations for Clinicians and Policy-Makers Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Podcast   link ⇲ Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Guideline Presentation   link ⇲

General Calculators
BMI and BSA (Mosteller)Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formula BMI and BSA (Du Bois)Determine body mass index and body surface area using Du Bois method Ideal Body Weight

Addictions
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise (AUDIT-C)Brief screen to detecting heavy alcohol use
Addiction Medicine
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise (AUDIT-C)Brief screen to detecting heavy alcohol use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)Screen for active alcohol abuse or dependence CAGE Questionnaire4 question screening for alcohol problems COWS Score for Opiate Withdrawal

Addictions
Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT)9 question screener for substance use in adolescents
Pediatrics
Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT)9 question screener for substance use in adolescents
Anesthesiology
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically ill BMI and BSA (Mosteller)Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formula BMI and BSA (Du Bois)Determine body mass index and body surface area using Du Bois method ACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)Document level of consciousness. Cardiac Output – FickCalculate cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and stroke volume index Pediatric Endotracheal Tube Size Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee Criteria)Rapid pre-op assessment using the Revised Cardiac Risk Index Asymptomatic ICA (Internal Carotid Artery) Stenosis Surgical Risk Stratification Due Date by LMPPregnancy due date calculator Due Date by UltrasoundDetermine pregnancy due date using ultrasound results Gupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskDetermine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries. Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortality VSGNE Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (RAAA) Risk ScoreEstimate mortality after open repair of ruptured AAA Pre-test probability of CAD (CAD consortium)Determine pre-test probability of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Carotid EndarterectomyEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | EVAREstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after EVAR Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Infra-inguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after infra-inguinal bypass Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Open AAA RepairEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after open AAA repair VQI: Respiratory Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryEstimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 30-Day Stroke Risk Index for CEAEstimate risk of stroke within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 1-Year Mortality Risk Index for CEAEstimate probability of death within 1 year after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Suprainguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after suprainguinal bypass PORT score for PeriOperative Risk of blood Transfusion in cardiac surgery by ACTAPredict risk of blood transfusion after elective cardiac surgery using the ACTA-PORT score Geriatric-Sensitive Perioperative Cardiac Risk Index | GSCRIEstimate risk of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest in patients over 65 STOP-BANG Score for Obstructive Sleep ApneaScreen for obstructive sleep apnea
Cardiac Surgery
Surgery in Asymptomatic Aortic StenosisAssess timing of surgery in severe, asymptomatic aortic stenosis BC Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care ScorePredict mortality after cardiac surgery based on preoperative and intraoperative variables assessed at admission to a cardiac surgery ICU Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery. Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model) HIT 4T’s scoreDiagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortality Euroscore IIEstimate risk of in-hospital death after cardiac surgery. Aortic Stenosis Risk ScoreEstimate risk of cardiovascular events in patients with aortic stenosis PORT score for PeriOperative Risk of blood Transfusion in cardiac surgery by ACTAPredict risk of blood transfusion after elective cardiac surgery using the ACTA-PORT score ADviSED – Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score Plus D-Dimer for Aortic SyndromesRule out aortic dissection and other aortic syndromes
Cardiology
Aortic Stenosis/Outflow
AS: Aortic Valve Area (Cont)Estimate aortic valve area AS: Aortic Valve Area (DVI)Estimate aortic valve area AS: Aortic Valve Area (Gorlin)Estimate aortic valve area AS: Aortic Valve Area (Hakki)Estimate aortic valve area Surgery in Asymptomatic Aortic StenosisAssess timing of surgery in severe, asymptomatic aortic stenosis Aortic Stenosis Risk ScoreEstimate risk of cardiovascular events in patients with aortic stenosis HCM Risk-SCDAssess risk of sudden cardiac death and need for ICD in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Aortic disease
ADviSED – Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score Plus D-Dimer for Aortic SyndromesRule out aortic dissection and other aortic syndromes
Atrial Fibrillation
Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: OBRIThe Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (OBRI) estimates risk of bleeding in AF while on oral anticoagulation. CHADS2 Score for AFAssess risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation CHA2DS2-VASc Score for AFReplacement for CHADS2 for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillation Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: HAS-BLED ScoreUnderstand the risk of bleeding from anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation Warfarin Bleeding Risk – ElderlyEstimate 90 day risk of bleeding in patients on warfarin who are >65 years Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: ATRIA Estimate bleeding risk for patients on warfarin.
Bleeding Risk
Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: OBRIThe Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (OBRI) estimates risk of bleeding in AF while on oral anticoagulation. CRUSADE Score for Post-MI Bleeding RiskEstimate bleeding risk after NSTEMI.
Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: HAS-BLED ScoreUnderstand the risk of bleeding from anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation Warfarin Bleeding Risk – ElderlyEstimate 90 day risk of bleeding in patients on warfarin who are >65 years
Coronary Artery Disease
Infarct Size – Anterior Infarct Size – Inferior HEART Score | Chest pain in the ERRisk stratify patients with chest pain in the ER Killip ClassEstimate mortality in myocardial infarction TIMI Risk Score (NSTEMI)Guide therapeutic decisions in non-ST elevation MI. Reynolds CAD Risk TIMI Risk Score (STEMI) VALIANT Heart Failure Risk Score GRACEThe GRACE ACS risk calculator estimates risk of death following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) Pre-test probability of CAD (CAD consortium)Determine pre-test probability of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Sgarbossa’s Criteria for MI in Left Bundle Branch BlockAllows for the diagnosis of acute MI in patients with known LBBB
ECG
ECG: Heart Rate ECG: Corrected QT ECG: Cycle Length
Echocardiography
AR: Quantification (Volumetric) AR: Regurgitant Orifice (PISA) AS: Aortic Valve Area (Cont)Estimate aortic valve area AS: Aortic Valve Area (DVI)Estimate aortic valve area Ejection Fraction (Simplified) Fractional Shortening Hemodynamics (Echo) Left Atrial Systolic Pressure LV/RV Contractility (dp/dt) Modified Bernoulli Equation MR: Quantification (PISA) MR: Quantification (Volumetric) MS: Wilkins’ Echo Score MS: Mitral Valve Area (Cont) MS: Mitral Valve Area (PHT) MS: Mitral Valve Area (PISA) Myocardial Performance Index (CO and ET) Myocardial Performance Index (IVRT and IVCT) PCWP (Echo) RV Systolic Pressure (TR Jet) Shunt Fraction (Echo)
Heart Failure
Framingham CHF Criteria Forrester HF Class Killip ClassEstimate mortality in myocardial infarction Seattle Heart Failure Model Stevenson HF Class VALIANT Heart Failure Risk Score NYHA Functional Class
Hypertension
Valsartan dose equivalenceUseful for replacing Valsartan formulations affected by the 2018 recall

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hypertension | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (PDF)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm (PDF)   link ⇲

Invasive Hemodynamics
AS: Aortic Valve Area (Gorlin)Estimate aortic valve area AS: Aortic Valve Area (Hakki)Estimate aortic valve area Cardiac Output – FickCalculate cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and stroke volume index MS: Mitral Valve Area (Gorlin) MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki) Pulmonary Resistance Shunt Fraction (Invasive) Systemic Vascular Resistance
Miscellaneous
Duke Criteria for EndocarditisDiagnose endocarditis Metabolic Syndrome (IDF) Jones Criteria for Diagnosis of Rheumatic FeverDiagnose acute rheumatic fever RPDAI (Relapsing Polychondritis Disease Activity Index)Assess disease activity in relapsing polychondritis.
Mitral Regurgitation
MR: Quantification (PISA) MR: Quantification (Volumetric)
Mitral Stenosis
MS: Wilkins’ Echo Score MS: Mitral Valve Area (Cont) MS: Mitral Valve Area (Gorlin) MS: Mitral Valve Area (PHT) MS: Mitral Valve Area (PISA) MS: Mitral Valve Area (Hakki)
PCI and Cardiac Surgery
PCI mortality – Canada Score BC Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care ScorePredict mortality after cardiac surgery based on preoperative and intraoperative variables assessed at admission to a cardiac surgery ICU Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery. Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model) PCI complication – Mayo PCI mortality – Michigan DAPT ScoreWhich patients should remain on dual anti-platelet therapy 1 year following coronary stent treatment? NCDR AKI and Dialysis Risk after PCIEstimate risk of AKI and dialysis after PCI
Pre-operative Assessment
Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee Criteria)Rapid pre-op assessment using the Revised Cardiac Risk Index Asymptomatic ICA (Internal Carotid Artery) Stenosis Surgical Risk Stratification Gupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskDetermine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries. Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Carotid EndarterectomyEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | EVAREstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after EVAR Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Infra-inguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after infra-inguinal bypass Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Open AAA RepairEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after open AAA repair Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Suprainguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after suprainguinal bypass Geriatric-Sensitive Perioperative Cardiac Risk Index | GSCRIEstimate risk of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest in patients over 65
Risk Scores
ACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Reynolds CAD Risk Framingham Risk Score (2008) Framingham Risk Score (ATP-III)Determine lipid treatment using Framingham Risk Score
Shunts
Shunt Fraction (Echo) Shunt Fraction (Invasive)
Syncope
Syncope – EGSYS ScoreWhich patients with syncope should be admitted? San Francisco Syncope RuleIdentify those at low risk of adverse outcome after a syncopal episode Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS)Estimate prognosis among patients presenting to emergency with syncope
Treadmill Testing
Pretest Probablity of CAD Duke Treadmill Score Exercise Capacity (METs) Rate Pressure Product Pre-test probability of CAD (CAD consortium)Determine pre-test probability of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain.
Critical Care
Cardiac ICU
Cardiac Output – FickCalculate cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume and stroke volume index Killip ClassEstimate mortality in myocardial infarction TIMI Risk Score (NSTEMI)Guide therapeutic decisions in non-ST elevation MI. Shunt Fraction (Invasive) TIMI Risk Score (STEMI) Systemic Vascular Resistance GRACEThe GRACE ACS risk calculator estimates risk of death following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Calculate MAP

REFERENCE BOOK

KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury

AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI

Introduction and Methodology
Introduction

Introduction Glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine Oliguria and anuria Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) ARF RIFLE criteria AKI: acute kidney injury/impairment Validation studies using RIFLE Limitations to current definitions for AKI Rationale for a guideline on AKI Summary

Methodology

Introduction Group member selection and meeting process Evidence selection, appraisal, and presentation Outcome selection judgments, values, and preferences Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations SPONSORSHIP DISCLAIMER SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI

Introduction Definition of AKI Staging AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material Risk assessment Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research recommendations Supplementary material

Clinical applications

Introduction Examples of application of AKI definitions Estimating baseline SCr Examples of application of AKI stages Urine output vs. SCr Timeframe for diagnosis and staging Clinical judgment Pseudo-AKI Atypical AKI Supplementary material

Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure

Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKD GFR and SCr GFR/SCr algorithm Oliguria as a measure of kidney function Kidney damage Small kidneys as a marker of kidney damage Integrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKD Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI

Introduction Fluids: Recommendations and Rationale Albumin vs. Saline Hydroxyethylstarch vs. Saline Vasopressors: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shock Goal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients Research Recommendations Supplementary material

General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications

Overview

Glycemic control and nutritional support

Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and Rationale Nutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKI Total Energy Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Protein Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Nutrition route: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatrics Considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

The use of diuretics in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Mannitol Research Recommendations

Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides

Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Natriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Growth factor intervention

Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and Rationale Erythropoietin Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Adenosine receptor antagonists

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI

Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity Treatment of Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale Topical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and Rationale Treatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill

On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations N-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and Rationale NAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary Material

Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis

Background Recommendations and Rationale Epidemiology of CI-AKI Prognosis of CI-AKI Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI

Recommendations and Rationale Risk-factor questionnaire Urinary protein screening Other risk factors of CI-AKI Risk models of CI-AKI Patients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Nephrotoxicity of Gd chelates Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) Supplementary Material

Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Introduction Dose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Route of administration of contrast media Research Recommendations Selection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and Rationale High-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media Low-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast media i.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglate i.v. Administration Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Fluid Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Use of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Role of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Theophylline: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam: Recommendations and Rationale Statins in the prevention of CI-AKI Supplementary Material

Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration

Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations

Research Recommendations

Supplementary material

Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction When to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and Rationale Use of diuretics: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations

Anticoagulation

Introduction How to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale In patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Uncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and Rationale When choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Using ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and Rationale Obtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and Rationale Topical antibiotics: Recommendations and Rationale Antibiotic locks: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI

Introduction Complementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and Rationale Hemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and Rationale AKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and Rationale Protocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRT Peritoneal dialysis Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI

Introduction Buffer solution: Recommendations and Rationale Dialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Dosing: Recommendations and Rationale Kt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and Rationale Additional considerations Research Recommendations Sponsorship Dislcaimer Supplementary material

Organization and Acknowledgements

Notice Work Group Membership KDIGO Board Members Reference Keys Abbreviations and Acronyms Abstract Foreword Biographic and Disclosure Information Acknowledgments References

General Medicine
Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS)Identify patients who are at risk of clinical deterioration and who may require a higher level of care.
ICU AKI
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically ill Contrast Nephropathy Post-PCIEstimate risk of AKI after percutaneous coronary intervention Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery. Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model) Fractional Excretion of SodiumDifferentiate pre-renal AKI from ATN. Fractional Excretion of UreaIdentify a pre-renal state in patients using diuretics Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortality Pediatric Renal Angina IndexPredict acute kidney injury in critically ill children STARRT-AKI Enrollment CriteriaDetermine if patients meet criteria for the STARRT-AKI study. Kinetic eGFR (KeGFR)Estimate GFR when creatinine is changing acutely (either rising or falling) PIM2Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised version Serious Renal Dysfunction Post-PCIAssess risk of dialysis or severe increase in creatinine after PCI CRRT Dosing CalculatorCalculate desired dose of dialysate in CRRT KDIGO AKI StagingClassification in acute kidney injury (AKI)

REFERENCE BOOK

KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury

AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI

Introduction and Methodology
Introduction

Introduction Glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine Oliguria and anuria Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) ARF RIFLE criteria AKI: acute kidney injury/impairment Validation studies using RIFLE Limitations to current definitions for AKI Rationale for a guideline on AKI Summary

Methodology

Introduction Group member selection and meeting process Evidence selection, appraisal, and presentation Outcome selection judgments, values, and preferences Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations SPONSORSHIP DISCLAIMER SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI

Introduction Definition of AKI Staging AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material Risk assessment Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research recommendations Supplementary material

Clinical applications

Introduction Examples of application of AKI definitions Estimating baseline SCr Examples of application of AKI stages Urine output vs. SCr Timeframe for diagnosis and staging Clinical judgment Pseudo-AKI Atypical AKI Supplementary material

Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure

Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKD GFR and SCr GFR/SCr algorithm Oliguria as a measure of kidney function Kidney damage Small kidneys as a marker of kidney damage Integrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKD Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI

Introduction Fluids: Recommendations and Rationale Albumin vs. Saline Hydroxyethylstarch vs. Saline Vasopressors: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shock Goal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients Research Recommendations Supplementary material

General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications

Overview

Glycemic control and nutritional support

Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and Rationale Nutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKI Total Energy Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Protein Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Nutrition route: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatrics Considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

The use of diuretics in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Mannitol Research Recommendations

Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides

Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Natriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Growth factor intervention

Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and Rationale Erythropoietin Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Adenosine receptor antagonists

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI

Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity Treatment of Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale Topical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and Rationale Treatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill

On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations N-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and Rationale NAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary Material

Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis

Background Recommendations and Rationale Epidemiology of CI-AKI Prognosis of CI-AKI Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI

Recommendations and Rationale Risk-factor questionnaire Urinary protein screening Other risk factors of CI-AKI Risk models of CI-AKI Patients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Nephrotoxicity of Gd chelates Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) Supplementary Material

Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Introduction Dose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Route of administration of contrast media Research Recommendations Selection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and Rationale High-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media Low-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast media i.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglate i.v. Administration Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Fluid Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Use of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Role of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Theophylline: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam: Recommendations and Rationale Statins in the prevention of CI-AKI Supplementary Material

Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration

Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations

Research Recommendations

Supplementary material

Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction When to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and Rationale Use of diuretics: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations

Anticoagulation

Introduction How to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale In patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Uncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and Rationale When choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Using ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and Rationale Obtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and Rationale Topical antibiotics: Recommendations and Rationale Antibiotic locks: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI

Introduction Complementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and Rationale Hemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and Rationale AKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and Rationale Protocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRT Peritoneal dialysis Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI

Introduction Buffer solution: Recommendations and Rationale Dialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Dosing: Recommendations and Rationale Kt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and Rationale Additional considerations Research Recommendations Sponsorship Dislcaimer Supplementary material

Organization and Acknowledgements

Notice Work Group Membership KDIGO Board Members Reference Keys Abbreviations and Acronyms Abstract Foreword Biographic and Disclosure Information Acknowledgments References

Illness Severity
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically ill Ranson’s CriteriaEstimate mortality in patients with pancreatitis.
Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortality BISAP ScoreEstimate disease severity in acute pancreatitis. Modified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisPredict outcome in acute pancreatitis UKELD ScoreThe United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) predicts prognosis in chronic liver disease and can be used to prioritize for liver transplantation
Medical ICU
Child Pugh ScoreDetermine severity of cirrhosis. DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup Parkland FormulaManage IV fluids required in burns Ranson’s CriteriaEstimate mortality in patients with pancreatitis.
Serious Illness Conversation GuideSteps to elicit important information from your patients about their goals and values Modified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisPredict outcome in acute pancreatitis UKELD ScoreThe United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) predicts prognosis in chronic liver disease and can be used to prioritize for liver transplantation Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS)Identify patients who are at risk of clinical deterioration and who may require a higher level of care. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Calculate MAP Rule of NinesEstimate surface area of burns
Neurologic ICU
Cerebral Perfusion Pressure FOUR Score Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)Document level of consciousness. CIWA-ArOptimize benzodiazepine treatment of patients alcohol withdrawal CAM-ICUDiagnose delirium in the intensive care unit. The Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS)Assess level of consciousness in the intensive care unit.
Respiratory ICU
A-a GradientUsed to determine cause of hypoxemia Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia. Pulmonary Resistance Pneumonia Severity Index (PORT Score)Determine need for admission in pneumonia Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure
Emergency
SIRS Criteria (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)Identify systemic inflammatory response to an infectious or non-infectious insult qSOFA Score in Septic PatientsPredict patients at high-mortality risk from sepsis (not diagnose sepsis)

Burns
Parkland FormulaManage IV fluids required in burns Rule of NinesEstimate surface area of burns
Chest pain & Cardiac
Infarct Size – Anterior Infarct Size – Inferior HEART Score | Chest pain in the ERRisk stratify patients with chest pain in the ER Killip ClassEstimate mortality in myocardial infarction TIMI Risk Score (NSTEMI)Guide therapeutic decisions in non-ST elevation MI. TIMI Risk Score (STEMI) GRACEThe GRACE ACS risk calculator estimates risk of death following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) Pre-test probability of CAD (CAD consortium)Determine pre-test probability of coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. ADviSED – Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score Plus D-Dimer for Aortic SyndromesRule out aortic dissection and other aortic syndromes Smith-Modified Sgarbossa’s Criteria for MI in Left Bundle Branch BlockDiagnose acute MI in patients with known LBBB Sgarbossa’s Criteria for MI in Left Bundle Branch BlockAllows for the diagnosis of acute MI in patients with known LBBB
General Medicine
ECG: Heart Rate A-a GradientUsed to determine cause of hypoxemia Anion GapCalculate anion gap for use in acid-base disorders. CHADS2 Score for AFAssess risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation CHA2DS2-VASc Score for AFReplacement for CHADS2 for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillation Child Pugh ScoreDetermine severity of cirrhosis. ECG: Corrected QT ECG: Cycle Length Fractional Excretion of SodiumDifferentiate pre-renal AKI from ATN. MDRD eGFRCalculate eGFR using the MDRD formula Prognosis after TIPSS using MELD Score Osmolal GapDetect unmeasured osmoles, such as toxic alcohols Peak Expiratory Flow Prediction Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia. Ranson’s CriteriaEstimate mortality in patients with pancreatitis.
Water Deficit in HypernatremiaDetermine water replacement in hypernatremia Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS)Estimate prognosis among patients presenting to emergency with syncope ROSIER scaleDetermine which patients are likely to have true stroke vs stroke mimics Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS)Identify patients who are at risk of clinical deterioration and who may require a higher level of care. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) Calculate MAP Centor Score (modified) for GAS PharyngitisEstimate likelihood of GAS pharyngitis
Injuries & Trauma
Canadian CT Head RuleDetermine which minor head injury patients need head CT imaging Canadian C-Spine RuleDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided NEXUS C-Spine CriteriaDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided Ottawa Ankle RulesDoes this ankle injury require an x-ray? Ottawa Knee RulesDoes this knee injury require an x-ray? Ottawa SAH RuleUse the Ottawa SAH Rule to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage Injury Severity ScoreDescribe severity of traumatic injury
Pediatrics ER
APGARNewborn assessment Pediatric Endotracheal Tube Size Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale Pediatric Strep Score PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Westley Croup ScoreAssess croup severity PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Philadelphia Criteria in Febrile Infants Identify febrile infants aged 29 – 56 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Boston Criteria for Febrile InfantsIdentify febrile infants aged 28 – 89 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Rochester Criteria for Febrile InfantsIdentify febrile infants aged ≤ 60 days old who are low-risk for serious bacterial infection PECARN Rule for Pediatric Head Injury < 2 years oldAssess the need for neuroimaging in pediatric head trauma PECARN Rule for Pediatric Head Injury ≥ 2 years oldAssess the need for neuroimaging in pediatric head trauma Alberta Croup Severity
Psychiatry
Modified SAD PERSONS ScaleAssess depression with the modified SAD PERSONS Scale CIWA-ArOptimize benzodiazepine treatment of patients alcohol withdrawal COWS Score for Opiate Withdrawal
Surgery
Alvarado Score for Acute AppendicitisDiagnose appendicitis VSGNE Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (RAAA) Risk ScoreEstimate mortality after open repair of ruptured AAA Modified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisPredict outcome in acute pancreatitis
Thrombosis
DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismUse the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%.
Endocrinology
Dubbo Osteoporotic Fracture RiskAssess risk of osteoporotic fracture Thyroid Carcinoma: AnaplasticTNM Staging for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: MedullaryTNM Staging for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: Well-DifferentiatedTNM Staging for Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Lipid Lowering Guidelines using Framingham (2008) Lipid Lowering Guidelines using Framingham (ATP-III) Calcium Correction for HypoalbuminemiaAdjust serum calcium in the setting of low albumin.

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Type 2 Diabetes | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

FINDRISC Diabetes Risk Calculator Clinician FAQ   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Obesity in Adults | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinician Algorithm – Calculator Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
Diabetes
FINDRISC Diabetes Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of developing diabetes and frequency of screening required. Reducing Vascular Risk in Patients Living with DiabetesDetermine which patients with diabetes require vascular protective therapy
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Physical Activity Decision Tool for Patients Living DiabetesAssess your patient’s physical ability and level of motivation to start and/or progress through a physical activity program.
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Individualizing Your Patient’s A1c TargetDetermine a patient-specific A1C target recommendation
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG)Determine frequency of blood glucose monitoring
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Screening For And Diagnosing Diabetes – A1c and Fasting Plasma GlucoseDetermine risk of developing diabetes and frequency of screening required
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Pharmacotherapy for Type 2 DiabetesDetermine which type 2 diabetes medications are recommended based on patient characteristics.
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Screening For And Diagnosing Diabetes – 75g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)Determine risk of developing diabetes and frequency of screening required
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly Screening For And Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)Assess for gestational diabetes mellitus
In Partnership with Diabetes Canada, sponsored by BI-Lilly
Gastroenterology
GI Bleed
Blatchford ScoreAssess if intervention is required for acute upper GI bleeding. Forrest ClassificationEstimate risk of re-bleeding post-endoscopy for upper GI bleeding. Rockall ScoreEstimate risk of mortality after endoscopy for GI bleed.
Hepatology
Autoimmune Hepatitis DiagnosisClarify the diagnose of autoimmune hepatitis Child Pugh ScoreDetermine severity of cirrhosis. Discriminant Function (Alcoholic Hepatitis) Emory Model (TIPSS) Prognosis after TIPSS using MELD Score Prognosis in Alcoholic HepatitisEstimates prognosis in alcoholic hepatitis using the MELD score PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Alcoholism – Risk of Relapse Alcohol Relapse Risk after Liver Transplant Serum Ascites to Albumin Gradient (SAAG)Determine if ascites due to portal hypertension. FIB-4 for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatic FibrosisNon-invasively identify hepatic fibrosis APRI (AST to Platelet Ratio Index)Assess likelihood of fibrosis or cirrhosis non-invasively using AST and platelet count. NAFLD Fibrosis ScoreReduce the need for liver biopsy by identifying patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease likely or unlikely to have advanced fibrosis MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsScoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system Alcohol Relapse Risk after Liver Transplant MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsScoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system UKELD ScoreThe United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) predicts prognosis in chronic liver disease and can be used to prioritize for liver transplantation Lille Model for Alcoholic HepatitisEstimate mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to corticosteroid therapy
BE3A ScoreWhen to treat HCV in decompensated cirrhosis
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI)Assess disease activity in Crohn’s disease Mayo Score for Ulcerative Colitis ActivityAssess disease activity in ulcerative colitis Urine Anion Gap or Urine Net ChargeUse urine electrolytes to differentiate renal tubular acidosis from diarrhea-induced non-anion gap metabolic acidosis PCDAIPediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index
Pancreatitis
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically ill CT Severity Index (Pancreatitis)Predict complication and mortality rate in pancreatitis, based on CT findings (Balthazar score) Ranson’s CriteriaEstimate mortality in patients with pancreatitis.
BISAP ScoreEstimate disease severity in acute pancreatitis. Modified Marshall ScoreA definition of organ failure in acute pancreatitis Modified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisPredict outcome in acute pancreatitis
Geriatrics
ABCD² ScoreGuide admission in TIA based on ABCD² Score ACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease CHADS2 Score for AFAssess risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation CHA2DS2-VASc Score for AFReplacement for CHADS2 for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillation Dubbo Osteoporotic Fracture RiskAssess risk of osteoporotic fracture Syncope – EGSYS ScoreWhich patients with syncope should be admitted? Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: HAS-BLED ScoreUnderstand the risk of bleeding from anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D or HDRS)Determine severity of depression MGUS PrognosisDetermine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder. Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia. Warfarin Bleeding Risk – ElderlyEstimate 90 day risk of bleeding in patients on warfarin who are >65 years Water Deficit in HypernatremiaDetermine water replacement in hypernatremia Pneumonia Severity Index (PORT Score)Determine need for admission in pneumonia eGFR using CKD-EPICalculate eGFR using the CKD-EPI formula Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)Screening tool to assist in identifying major depressive disorder Geriatric Depression ScaleA questionnaire to screen for depression in geriatric populations 3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsEstimate the risk of early death (at 3 months) in elderly patients starting dialysis. Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis GAD-7 Anxiety ScaleScreen for generalized anxiety disorder Polymyalgia Rheumatica (2012 EULAR/ACR Provisional Criteria)Review EULAR/ACR criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica San Francisco Syncope RuleIdentify those at low risk of adverse outcome after a syncopal episode International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)Assess severity of symptoms in benign prostatic hypertrophy Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-geriatric version The SMAST-GAssess for problem alcohol drinking in the elderly Geriatric-Sensitive Perioperative Cardiac Risk Index | GSCRIEstimate risk of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest in patients over 65

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cognitive Impairment | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
Depression
Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)16 question geriatric cognitive screener
Neurocognitive Disorder
Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)16 question geriatric cognitive screener
Hematology
Benign Hematology
DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism HIT 4T’s scoreDiagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup Recognize Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Sponsored Content Identify Type of Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Sponsored Content PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismUse the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%. Expected spleen size Provides upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume by ultrasound relative to body height and gender.
Padua Prediction Score for Risk of VTEEstimate risk of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients Recognise Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Sponsored by Alexion Pharma UK Identify Type of Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Sponsored by Alexion Pharma UK Khorana risk scoreEstimate risk of chemotherapy-associated thrombosis PORT score for PeriOperative Risk of blood Transfusion in cardiac surgery by ACTAPredict risk of blood transfusion after elective cardiac surgery using the ACTA-PORT score Identify Type of Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Sponsored by Alexion Pharmaceuticals Recognise Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Sponsored by Alexion Pharmaceuticals
Body Surface Area
BMI and BSA (Mosteller)Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formula BMI and BSA (Du Bois)Determine body mass index and body surface area using Du Bois method
Malignant Hematology
CMML Prognostic Scoring Systems (from Spain and Dusseldorf)Assess risk of progression to AML and early mortality in CMML Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Prognosis (R-IPI)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Follicular Lymphoma prognosisDetermine prognosis in follicular lymphoma (FLIPI) Acute GVHD GradingDetermine severity in acute graft versus host disease. Hodgkin’s Disease | PrognosisEstimate prognosis in Hodgkin’s disease. Hematopoietic cell transplantation – specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) MDS Revised – International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R)Assess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome Hodgkin’s Marrow InvolvementEstimate likelihood of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. MDS Intnl Prognostic Scoring Sys (IPSS) Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (ISS) MASCC Febrile Neutropenia RiskAssess risk in febrile neutropenia and appropriateness for outpatient management MDS Anemia – EPO/GCSF ResponseIdentify those with MDS likely to respond to stem-cell factors. MDS WHO Classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS)Estimate survival and risk of transformation to AML in myelodysplastic syndrome. MGUS PrognosisDetermine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder. MIPI – Mantle Cell Lymphoma PrognosisEstimate prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma. DIPSS Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma PrognosisDetermine risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (IPI24)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (NCCN-IPI)Estimate prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma DIPSS Plus Score for Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis. Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (R-ISS)Revised international staging system for myeloma CLL-IPIThe International Prognostic Index for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia Expected spleen size Provides upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume by ultrasound relative to body height and gender.
MDS Revised – International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) Non-Age AdjustedAssess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome using the non-age adjusted model
Sponsored CNS International Prognostic Index in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (CNS-IPI)Estimate risk of CNS relapse/progression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma MALT Lymphoma prognosis (MALT-IPI)Estimate prognosis in MALT lymphoma Khorana risk scoreEstimate risk of chemotherapy-associated thrombosis CLL BALL Score for Relapsed/Refractory CLL
Infectious Disease
Child Pugh ScoreDetermine severity of cirrhosis. Duke Criteria for EndocarditisDiagnose endocarditis Lund-Mackay Sinusitis StageAssess severity of chronic rhinosinusitis and assess response to therapy. MASCC Febrile Neutropenia RiskAssess risk in febrile neutropenia and appropriateness for outpatient management Prognosis after TIPSS using MELD Score Pediatric Strep Score Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia. Westley Croup ScoreAssess croup severity Pneumonia Severity Index (PORT Score)Determine need for admission in pneumonia Jones Criteria for Diagnosis of Rheumatic FeverDiagnose acute rheumatic fever MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsScoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsScoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system Vancomycin Dosing Based on eGFR (creatinine-cystatin C)Select an appropriate initial dose and interval for vancomycin taking into account renal function using cystatin C & creatinine Centor Score (modified) for GAS PharyngitisEstimate likelihood of GAS pharyngitis Boston Criteria for Febrile InfantsIdentify febrile infants aged 28 – 89 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Rochester Criteria for Febrile InfantsIdentify febrile infants aged ≤ 60 days old who are low-risk for serious bacterial infection BE3A ScoreWhen to treat HCV in decompensated cirrhosis TB Skin Test InterpretationDetermine likelihood of TB based on tuberculin skin test Canadian Influenza Immunization GuideAdapted from Immunize Canada Alberta Croup Severity

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hepatitis C | CTFPHCReview Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care guideline on Hepatitis C screening

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
Medical Administration
Mayo Early Screen for Discharge PlanningIdentify patients needing specialized discharge planning services HOSPITAL ScoreDetermine risk of avoidable hospital readmission
Medical Imaging
Body Imaging
CT Severity Index (Pancreatitis)Predict complication and mortality rate in pancreatitis, based on CT findings (Balthazar score) Expected spleen size Provides upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume by ultrasound relative to body height and gender.
Obstetrical imaging
Due Date by LMPPregnancy due date calculator Due Date by UltrasoundDetermine pregnancy due date using ultrasound results Gestational Age
Thrombosis imaging
DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismUse the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%.
Trauma/MSK imaging
Canadian CT Head RuleDetermine which minor head injury patients need head CT imaging Canadian C-Spine RuleDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided NEXUS C-Spine CriteriaDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided Ottawa Ankle RulesDoes this ankle injury require an x-ray? Ottawa Knee RulesDoes this knee injury require an x-ray? NEXUS Chest Decision Instrument for Blunt Chest TraumaAssess the need for chest imaging after blunt trauma
Mental Health
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cognitive Impairment | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
Addictions
CIWA-ArOptimize benzodiazepine treatment of patients alcohol withdrawal Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-geriatric version The SMAST-GAssess for problem alcohol drinking in the elderly Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise (AUDIT-C)Brief screen to detecting heavy alcohol use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)Screen for active alcohol abuse or dependence Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​5 questions to measure mental well-being
Anxiety
GAD-7 Anxiety ScaleScreen for generalized anxiety disorder Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)Ultra-Brief Screening for Anxiety and Depression CAGE Questionnaire4 question screening for alcohol problems Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS)7 question scale to grade panic disorder severity Major Depression Inventory (MDI)12 question depression severity scale
Bipolar
Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM)5 question scale to screen and stage severity of hypomania/mania Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)11 question scale to grade the severity of mania Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)Ultra-Brief Screening for Anxiety and Depression Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​5 questions to measure mental well-being Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)16 question geriatric cognitive screener Major Depression Inventory (MDI)12 question depression severity scale
Depression
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D or HDRS)Determine severity of depression Modified SAD PERSONS ScaleAssess depression with the modified SAD PERSONS Scale Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)Screening tool to assist in identifying major depressive disorder Geriatric Depression ScaleA questionnaire to screen for depression in geriatric populations Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2)Ultra-brief screening for depressive disorders Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM)5 question scale to screen and stage severity of hypomania/mania Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)11 question scale to grade the severity of mania Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)Ultra-Brief Screening for Anxiety and Depression CAGE Questionnaire4 question screening for alcohol problems Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​5 questions to measure mental well-being Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)16 question geriatric cognitive screener Major Depression Inventory (MDI)12 question depression severity scale

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Depression | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Algorithm & FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​5 questions to measure mental well-being
Pediatrics
SNAP-IV 26 – Teacher & Parent Rating ScaleAssess children for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Psychosis
Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​5 questions to measure mental well-being Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE)16 question geriatric cognitive screener
Psychosomatic
Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15)Somatic Symptom Severity Scale Who Five Well Being Index (WHO-5)​5 questions to measure mental well-being
Nephrology
Acute Kidney Injury
APACHE IIEstimate mortality in the critically ill Contrast Nephropathy Post-PCIEstimate risk of AKI after percutaneous coronary intervention Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Cleveland Clinic Score by Thakar)Estimate risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery. Dialysis Risk After Cardiac Surgery (Mehta)Estimate the risk of dialysis after cardiac surgery (Mehta model) Fractional Excretion of SodiumDifferentiate pre-renal AKI from ATN. Fractional Excretion of UreaIdentify a pre-renal state in patients using diuretics Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)Document clinical severity in the ICU and predict mortality Pediatric Renal Angina IndexPredict acute kidney injury in critically ill children STARRT-AKI Enrollment CriteriaDetermine if patients meet criteria for the STARRT-AKI study. Kinetic eGFR (KeGFR)Estimate GFR when creatinine is changing acutely (either rising or falling) PIM2Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised version Serious Renal Dysfunction Post-PCIAssess risk of dialysis or severe increase in creatinine after PCI CRRT Dosing CalculatorCalculate desired dose of dialysate in CRRT NCDR AKI and Dialysis Risk after PCIEstimate risk of AKI and dialysis after PCI Advanced CKD after AKI Risk IndexEstimate risk of advanced chronic kidney disease after acute kidney injury Mayo AKI Risk after Primary Total Hip ArthroplastyEstimate perioperative risk of acute kidney injury KDIGO AKI StagingClassification in acute kidney injury (AKI)

REFERENCE BOOK

KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury

AKI Definition Prevention and Treatment of AKI Contrast-induced AKI Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI

Introduction and Methodology
Introduction

Introduction Glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine Oliguria and anuria Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) ARF RIFLE criteria AKI: acute kidney injury/impairment Validation studies using RIFLE Limitations to current definitions for AKI Rationale for a guideline on AKI Summary

Methodology

Introduction Group member selection and meeting process Evidence selection, appraisal, and presentation Outcome selection judgments, values, and preferences Grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations SPONSORSHIP DISCLAIMER SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL

AKI Definition
Definition and classification of AKI

Introduction Definition of AKI Staging AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material Risk assessment Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Evaluation and general management of patients with and at risk for AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research recommendations Supplementary material

Clinical applications

Introduction Examples of application of AKI definitions Estimating baseline SCr Examples of application of AKI stages Urine output vs. SCr Timeframe for diagnosis and staging Clinical judgment Pseudo-AKI Atypical AKI Supplementary material

Diagnostic approach to alterations in kidney function and structure

Definitions of AKI, CKD and AKD GFR and SCr GFR/SCr algorithm Oliguria as a measure of kidney function Kidney damage Small kidneys as a marker of kidney damage Integrated approach to AKI, AKD, and CKD Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Prevention and Treatment of AKI
Hemodynamic monitoring and support for prevention and management of AKI

Introduction Fluids: Recommendations and Rationale Albumin vs. Saline Hydroxyethylstarch vs. Saline Vasopressors: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized Hemodynamic Management: Recommendations and Rationale Protocolized hemodynamic management strategies in septic shock Goal-directed therapy for hemodynamic support during the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients Research Recommendations Supplementary material

General supportive management of patients with AKI, including management of complications

Overview

Glycemic control and nutritional support

Glycemic control in critical illness: Recommendations and Rationale Nutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of critically ill patients with AKI Total Energy Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Protein Intake: Recommendations and Rationale Nutrition route: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatrics Considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

The use of diuretics in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Mannitol Research Recommendations

Vasodilator therapy: dopamine, fenoldopam, and natriuretic peptides

Dopamine for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Natriuretic peptides for the prevention or treatment of AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Growth factor intervention

Recombinant Human (rh) IGF-1: Recommendations and Rationale Erythropoietin Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Adenosine receptor antagonists

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Prevention of aminoglycoside- and amphotericin-related AKI

Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity Treatment of Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with Normal Kidney Function in Steady State: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Multiple Daily Dosing is Used for More than 24 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale When Treatment with Single-Daily Dosing is Used for More than 48 Hours: Recommendations and Rationale Topical or Local Applications of Aminoglycosides: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity: Recommendations and Rationale Treatment of Systemic Mycoses or Parasitic Infections: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Other methods of prevention of AKI in the critically ill

On-pump vs. off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations N-ACETYLCYSTEINE (NAC): Recommendations and Rationale NAC in critically ill patients: Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary Material

Contrast-induced AKI
Contrast-induced AKI: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis

Background Recommendations and Rationale Epidemiology of CI-AKI Prognosis of CI-AKI Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Assessment of the population at risk for CI-AKI

Recommendations and Rationale Risk-factor questionnaire Urinary protein screening Other risk factors of CI-AKI Risk models of CI-AKI Patients at Increased Risk for CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Nephrotoxicity of Gd chelates Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) Supplementary Material

Nonpharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Introduction Dose/Volume of Contrast-Media Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Route of administration of contrast media Research Recommendations Selection of a Contrast Agent: Recommendations and Rationale High-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media Low-osmolar vs. iso-osmolar contrast media i.a. Iodixanol vs. ioxaglate i.v. Administration Research Recommendations Supplementary Material

Pharmacological prevention strategies of CI-AKI

Fluid Administration: Recommendations and Rationale Use of oral fluids alone in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Role of nac in the prevention of CI-AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Theophylline: Recommendations and Rationale Fenoldopam: Recommendations and Rationale Statins in the prevention of CI-AKI Supplementary Material

Effects of hemodialysis or hemofiltration

Recommendations and Rationale Sponsorship Disclaimer Supplementary material

Dialysis Interventions for Treatment of AKI
Timing of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations

Research Recommendations

Supplementary material

Criteria for stopping renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction When to discontinue RRT: Recommendations and Rationale Use of diuretics: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations

Anticoagulation

Introduction How to decide to use anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients without an increased bleeding risk or impaired coagulation and not already receiving effective systemic anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale Patients with increased bleeding risk who are not receiving anticoagulation: Recommendations and Rationale In patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Vascular access for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Uncuffed nontunneled dialysis catheter vs a tunneled catheter: Recommendations and Rationale When choosing a vein for insertion of a dialysis catheter in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Using ultrasound guidance for dialysis catheter insertion: Recommendations and Rationale Obtaining a chest radiograph promptly after placement and before first use of an internal jugular or subclavian dialysis catheter: Recommendations and Rationale Topical antibiotics: Recommendations and Rationale Antibiotic locks: Recommendations and Rationale Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dialyzer membranes for renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations

Modality of renal replacement therapy for patients with AKI

Introduction Complementary therapies in AKI patients: Recommendations and Rationale Hemodynamically unstable patients: Recommendations and Rationale AKI patients with acute brain injury or other causes of increased intracranial pressure or generalized brain edema: Recommendations and Rationale Protocols for decreasing hemodynamic instability with intermittent RRT Peritoneal dialysis Pediatric considerations Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Buffer solutions for renal replacement therapy in patients with AKI

Introduction Buffer solution: Recommendations and Rationale Dialysis fluids and replacement fluids in patients with AKI: Recommendations and Rationale Research Recommendations Supplementary material

Dose of renal replacement therapy in AKI

Introduction Dosing: Recommendations and Rationale Kt/V and Effluent Volume Rates: Recommendations and Rationale Additional considerations Research Recommendations Sponsorship Dislcaimer Supplementary material

Organization and Acknowledgements

Notice Work Group Membership KDIGO Board Members Reference Keys Abbreviations and Acronyms Abstract Foreword Biographic and Disclosure Information Acknowledgments References

Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney Failure Risk Equation (8 Variable)Estimate risk of progression to end-stage renal disease in CKD patients using 8 variables. Kidney Failure Risk Equation (4 Variable)Estimate risk of progression to end-stage renal disease in CKD patients using age, sex, eGFR and proteinuria with KFRE Chronic Kidney Disease Management: BC GuidelinesPrimary care management of CKD
Supported by Shared Care Committee of BC Predicting 6 and 12 Month Mortality in CKD patientsEstimate mortality in patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease. Vancomycin Dosing Based on eGFR (creatinine-cystatin C)Select an appropriate initial dose and interval for vancomycin taking into account renal function using cystatin C & creatinine
Fluids & Electrolytes
Anion GapCalculate anion gap for use in acid-base disorders. Henderson-Hasselbalch Osmolal GapDetect unmeasured osmoles, such as toxic alcohols Transtubular K GradientWorkup hypokalemia and hyperkalemia Water Deficit in HypernatremiaDetermine water replacement in hypernatremia Volume of Distribution of Urea Calcium Correction for HypoalbuminemiaAdjust serum calcium in the setting of low albumin. Total Body Water (Watson Formula) Corrected Sodium in HyperglycemiaAs used in the new MELD score, to correct Na in the setting of hyperglycemia Base ExcessUsed in assessing acid-base status Urine Anion Gap or Urine Net ChargeUse urine electrolytes to differentiate renal tubular acidosis from diarrhea-induced non-anion gap metabolic acidosis
Glomerulonephritis
Membranous PrognosisEstimate risk of progressive renal dysfunction in membranous nephropathy SLEDAI-2KAssess disease activity in lupus
Hemodialysis
Access Recirculation Kt/V from PRU Kt/V Daugirdas 6-Month Mortality on HDEstimate 6 month mortality on dialysis using the Cohen model Home HD Candidacy (MATCH-D)Assess candidacy for home hemodialysis Percent Reduction of Urea Phenytoin Adjustment in Renal Failure 3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsEstimate the risk of early death (at 3 months) in elderly patients starting dialysis. Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Dialysis Duration Needed for Methanol IngestionEstimate dialysis duration required for methanol poisoning Dialysis Duration Needed for Ethylene Glycol IngestionEstimate dialysis duration required for ethylene glycol poisoning Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis
Hypertension
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hypertension | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (PDF)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm (PDF)   link ⇲

Nephrolithiasis
ROKS – Recurrence Of Kidney Stone (2014)Predict risk of recurrent kidney stones
PD
PD Candidacy (MATCH-D)Assess candidacy for peritoneal dialysis 3-Month Mortality in Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsEstimate the risk of early death (at 3 months) in elderly patients starting dialysis. Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis

REFERENCE BOOK

Access Care and Complications Management
Sponsored

Overview Disclaimer & Use of the Guide

Catheter Insertion and Care
Preoperative Management

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Perioperative and Intraoperative Management

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Postoperative Management

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Chronic Care of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Noninfectious Complications
Pericatheter and Subcutaneous Leaks

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation Management References

Peritoneal Catheter Obstruction

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Hernia

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Abdominal Discomfort During Infusion and Drain

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Pneumoperitoneum (Shoulder Pain)

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Hemoperitoneum

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Hydrothorax

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Catheter Adapter Disconnect or Fracture of Peritoneal Catheter

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Infectious Complications: Peritonitis Management
Initial Empiric Management of Peritonitis

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation Initial Empiric Management of Peritonitis Staphyloccocus aureus Peritonitis Enterococcus Peritonitis Streptococcus Peritonitis Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peritonitis Gram-negative Bacilli Organism Peritonitis Polymicrobial Peritonitis Culture-negative Peritonitis Fungal Peritonitis Mycobacterium Peritonitis Peritonitis Terminology Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Relapsing and Repeat Peritonitis References Disclaimer

Infectious Complications: Management of the Exit-site/Tunnel Infection
Introduction

Introduction Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation Diagnosis and Management of Exit-site/Tunnel Infection References Disclaimer

Antibiotic Dosing Guidelines

Oral Antibiotics Used in Exit-site and Tunnel Infections Exit-site Antibiotic Prophylaxis Intraperitoneal Antibiotic Dosing Recommendations for CAPD Patients Intermittent Dosing of Antibiotics in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) References

Surgical Salvage Procedures for Infectious Complications
Simultaneous Catheter Replacement for Relapsing Peritonitis

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation

Exit-Site and Tunnel Infections

Key Assessments Key Activities Patient Education Outcomes Evaluation References

Appendix

Preoperative and Postoperative PD Catheter Insertion Instructions for Patients Peritoneal Imaging Principles of Accurate Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Sampling and Culturing Peritoneal Effluent Culture Laboratory Processing Peritonitis Rate Calculations Differential Diagnosis of Non-infectious Cloudy Effluent Providing for a Safe Environment for Peritoneal Dialysis Normal Bacterial Flora of the Human Body

Preoperative Mapping

Introduction Preoperative Mapping Using a Catheter Sample Stencil-Based Preoperative Mapping Preoperative Mapping for Upper Abdominal and Presternal Catheters Procedure Day Mapping References Calculating Peritonitis Rates: An Example Author Affiliations Access Care and Complications Management   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

CSN PD Adequacy Guidelines and Recommendations 2011

Maintenance of RRF

Measurement of RRF Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretis to Preserve RRF

Small-Solute Clearance

Prescription and Targets

Volume Management

Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of Hypervolemia Treatment of Hypervolemia Assessment and Management of BP

Management of CV Disease in PD Patients

Dyslipidemia

Nutrition in PD

Nutrition Nutritional Supplements Correction of Impared Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis

Management of Hyperglycemia

Glycemic Control Glucose-Sparing Strategies

Introduction

Overview Methods and Process for Guideline Development Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Maintenance of RRF
Measurement of RRF

Overview

Use of Antihypertensive Agents and Diuretics to Preserve RRF

Overview Background

Research

Overview

Small-Solute Clearance
Prescriptions and Targets

Overview Background

Volume Management
Maintenance of Euvolemia and Diagnosis of Hypervolemia

Overview Background

Treatment of Hypervolemia

Overview Background

Assessment and Management of BP

Overview Background

Management of CV Disease in PD Patients
Dyslipidemia

Overview Background

Coronary Artery Disease/Chronic Heart Failure

Overview

Research

Overview

Nutrition in PD
Nutrition

Overview Background

Nutritional Supplements

Overview Background

Correction of Impaired Anabolism, Acidosis, and Gastroparesis

Overview Background

Research

Overview

Management of Hyperglycemia
Glycemic Control

Overview Background

Glucose-Sparing Strategies

Overview Background Disclosures References

REFERENCE BOOK

PD Prescription Quick Reference Guide
Sponsored

PD Prescription Body Surface Area Volume Distribution of Urea Membrane Transport Type Residual Kidney Function Disclaimer & Background Adequacy and Ultrafiltration Goals Volume of Distribution of Urea PET Calculations Assessment for Initial Prescription Preliminary Assessment of Drain Volume Individualizing Therapy Assumptions on which modelling is based EXTRANEAL (Icodextrin) PD Solution Important Risk Information References Peritoneal Dialysis Prescription Management Quick Reference Guide   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

PD Prescription Management Guide
Sponsored

Introduction

Fundamentals of the Prescription

Getting Started: Patient Pathway to First Prescription Residual Kidney Function urea) Formulas and Tables’);”>Volume of Distribution of Urea (Vurea) Formulas and Tables Peritoneal Membrane Type PET Calculations The Standard Peritoneal Equilibrium Test The Modified PET

The Process to Develop an Initial Prescription

Overview of the Prescription Management Process Assessment for Initial Prescription Preliminary Assessment of Drain Volume Suggested Timetable for Initial and Subsequent Clearance Measurements

Individualizing the Therapy

Overview Therapy Optimization Assumptions on Which Modeling Is Based Membrane Transport Characteristics and Preferred PD Modality Individualizing the Therapy

Monitoring the Therapy Long Term

Residual Kidney Function Volume Control Assessment of Volume Status Management of Hypervolemia Routine Clinic Visit Caveats About Serum Phosphorus and PD Overview

Appendix

Weekly Dialysis Clearance Cr)’);”>Creatinine Clearance (CCr) Routine Patient Assessment Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) Regimens (Examples) Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) Regimen International Clinical Practice Guideline Recommendations

EXTRANEAL (Icodextrin) PD Solution, Important Risk Information, References & Contributors

EXTRANEAL (Icodextrin) PD Solution Important Risk Information References Contributors PD Prescription Management Guide   link ⇲ PD Prescription Body Surface Area Volume Distribution of Urea Membrane Transport Type Residual Kidney Function

Pathology
Glomerulosclerosis on Biopsy (2015)Differentiate glomerulosclerosis from kidney disease rather than aging
Polycystic Kidney Disease
ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Total Kidney VolumeEstimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Sponsored PROPKD ScorePredict renal survival in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) using genetics
Sponsored ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Kidney DimensionsEstimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Sponsored ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Kidney DimensionsEstimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease using kidney dimensions
Sponsored ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Total Kidney VolumeEstimate risk of progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease using total kidney volume
Sponsored

REFERENCE BOOK

ADPKD Canadian Expert Consensus
Sponsored

Key Messages Introduction Genetic Testing in ADPKD Renal Imaging in ADPKD

Predicting Renal Progression

Methods to Predict Renal Progression Predicting Progression with the PROPKD Score Predicting Progression with Genetic Scoring Predicting Progression with the Mayo Classification

Treatment Options for ADPKD

Non-targeted Options for ADPKD ADPKD-Specific Treatment Options References PROPKD Calculator Mayo ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Kidney Dimensions Mayo ADPKD Prognostic Tool using Total Kidney Volume

Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Recognize Thrombotic Microangiopathy
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Transplant
Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 1 Year Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 7 Days Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted at Time of TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 1 Year Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 7 Days Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted at Time of TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years
eGFR
CrCl Cockroft-Gault CrCl from 24h UrineCalculate creatinine clearance from a 24h urine collection. Mayo Quadratic eGFR MDRD eGFRCalculate eGFR using the MDRD formula MDRD eGFR (6 Variable) eGFR using CKD-EPICalculate eGFR using the CKD-EPI formula Schwartz Pediatric Bedside eGFR (2009)The revised “bedside” pediatric eGFR requires only serum creatinine and height. Schwartz Pediatric eGFR, Full Model (2009)The full Schwartz pediatric eGFR calculation requires height, serum creatinine, cystatin C, blood urea nitrogen and gender.
Neurology / Neurosurgery
Arteriovenous Malformation
AVM Rupture Risk Spetzler-Martin Score
Coma/Level of Consciousness
FOUR Score Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)Document level of consciousness. Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale CAM-ICUDiagnose delirium in the intensive care unit. The Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS)Assess level of consciousness in the intensive care unit.
Demyelinating Disease
Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) CriteriaDiagnose neuromyelitis optica Multiple Sclerosis DiagnosisDiagnose Relapsing-Remitting MS using the 2017 McDonald Criteria
Dermatome Map
Anterior Dermatome Map Head and Neck Dermatome Map Posterior Dermatome Map Top View Dermatome Map
Functional Outcome
Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) Erasmus GBS Respiratory Insufficiency Score (EGRIS)Predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission, in individual patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Modified Erasmus GBS Outcome Score (EGOS) at hospital admissionPredict probability of being unable to walk independently during follow up in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Score taken at hospital admission. Modified Erasmus GBS Outcome Score (EGOS) at day 7 of admissionPredict the probability of being unable to walk independently during follow up in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Score taken after 7 days of hospital admission.
Head & Neck Trauma
Canadian CT Head RuleDetermine which minor head injury patients need head CT imaging Canadian C-Spine RuleDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided NEXUS C-Spine CriteriaDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided
Headache
MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment)Measure level of disability in patients with migraines
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
ICH FUNC ScorePredict likelihood of functional independence after intracranial hemorrhage ICH ScoreEstimate mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage ICH Volume Blood on MRI
Ischemic Stroke
ABCD² ScoreGuide admission in TIA based on ABCD² Score CHADS2 Score for AFAssess risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation CHA2DS2-VASc Score for AFReplacement for CHADS2 for stroke prediction in atrial fibrillation t-PA Dosing in Acute Stroke TICI Score Asymptomatic ICA (Internal Carotid Artery) Stenosis Surgical Risk Stratification DRAGON Score for Post-TPA Stroke OutcomeThe DRAGON Score predicts outcome at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients receiving tPA. NIH Stroke Scale/Score (NIHSS)NIH Stroke Scale provides an assessment for stroke severity. Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 30-Day Stroke Risk Index for CEAEstimate risk of stroke within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 1-Year Mortality Risk Index for CEAEstimate probability of death within 1 year after carotid endarterectomy ROSIER scaleDetermine which patients are likely to have true stroke vs stroke mimics
Neurophysiology
Cerebral Perfusion Pressure
Seizure
Fosphenytoin Load Phenytoin Adjustment in Renal Failure Seizure vs SyncopeDetermine which patients are likely to have seizure versus syncope as the cause of loss of consciousness
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
SAH Fisher Grade SAH Hunt & Hess Scale Modified Fisher Scale WFNS SAH Scale Ottawa SAH RuleUse the Ottawa SAH Rule to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage PHASES ScorePredict risk of rupture for asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms
Thrombotic Microangiopathy
Recognize Thrombotic Microangiopathy
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Obstetrics
Bishop ScorePredict whether induction of labor will be required. Due Date by LMPPregnancy due date calculator Due Date by UltrasoundDetermine pregnancy due date using ultrasound results Gestational Age Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure
Oncology
Body Surface Area
BMI and BSA (Mosteller)Calculate BMI and Body Surface Area using Mosteller formula BMI and BSA (Du Bois)Determine body mass index and body surface area using Du Bois method
Head & Neck Cancer Staging
Ethmoid Sinus CarcinomaTNM Staging for Ethmoid Sinus Carcinoma
Hypopharyngeal CarcinomaTNM Staging for Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma Maxillary Sinus CarcinomaTNM Staging for Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma Mucosal Melanoma Nasopharyngeal CarcinomaTNM Staging for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Oral Cavity CarcinomaTNM Staging for Oral Cavity Carcinoma Oropharyngeal CarcinomaTNM Staging for Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Salivary Gland CarcinomaTNM Staging for Salivary Gland Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: AnaplasticTNM Staging for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: MedullaryTNM Staging for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: Well-DifferentiatedTNM Staging for Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Laryngeal Carcinoma: GlotticTNM Staging for Glottic Laryngeal Carcinoma Laryngeal Carcinoma: SubglotticTNM Staging for Glottic Laryngeal Carcinoma Laryngeal Carcinoma: SupraglotticTNM Staging for Supraglottic Laryngeal Carcinoma
Malignant Hematology
CMML Prognostic Scoring Systems (from Spain and Dusseldorf)Assess risk of progression to AML and early mortality in CMML Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Prognosis (R-IPI)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Follicular Lymphoma prognosisDetermine prognosis in follicular lymphoma (FLIPI) Acute GVHD GradingDetermine severity in acute graft versus host disease. Hodgkin’s Disease | PrognosisEstimate prognosis in Hodgkin’s disease. Hematopoietic cell transplantation – specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) MDS Revised – International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R)Assess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome Hodgkin’s Marrow InvolvementEstimate likelihood of bone marrow involvement in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. MDS Intnl Prognostic Scoring Sys (IPSS) Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (ISS) MASCC Febrile Neutropenia RiskAssess risk in febrile neutropenia and appropriateness for outpatient management MDS Anemia – EPO/GCSF ResponseIdentify those with MDS likely to respond to stem-cell factors. MDS WHO Classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS)Estimate survival and risk of transformation to AML in myelodysplastic syndrome. MGUS PrognosisDetermine risk of malignant progression to myleoma or lymphoproliferative disorder. MIPI – Mantle Cell Lymphoma PrognosisEstimate prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma. DIPSS Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis. Smoldering Multiple Myeloma PrognosisDetermine risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (IPI24)Determine prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Prognosis (NCCN-IPI)Estimate prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma DIPSS Plus Score for Prognosis in MyelofibrosisEstimate prognosis in myelofibrosis. Multiple Myeloma Prognosis (R-ISS)Revised international staging system for myeloma CLL-IPIThe International Prognostic Index for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia MDS Revised – International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) Non-Age AdjustedAssess mortality and progression to acute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndrome using the non-age adjusted model
Sponsored CNS International Prognostic Index in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (CNS-IPI)Estimate risk of CNS relapse/progression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma MALT Lymphoma prognosis (MALT-IPI)Estimate prognosis in MALT lymphoma Khorana risk scoreEstimate risk of chemotherapy-associated thrombosis CLL BALL Score for Relapsed/Refractory CLL
Solid Tumor
NSCLC Stage Carboplatin AUC Dosing (Calvert) Prognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma (UISS)Estimate survival in renal cell carcinoma Brain Metastases Prognostic IndexEstimate prognosis in patients with brain metastases using the graded prognostic assessment Serious Illness Conversation GuideSteps to elicit important information from your patients about their goals and values Khorana risk scoreEstimate risk of chemotherapy-associated thrombosis

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Breast Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendation – Summary Clinical Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Clinician CBE BSE Recommendation Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Patient Algorithm   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 40-49   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 50-69   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 70-74   link ⇲ Informational Video   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Colorectal Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Recommendations Table Clinician Summary Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Lung Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ 1000-Person Tool Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Prostate Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Prostate Cancer Infographic 1000-Person Tool Patient FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CTFPHC Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening Video   link ⇲ Mike Evans Screening Video   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cervical Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendation – Summary Clinical Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm   link ⇲ Clinician FAQ   link ⇲ Patient Algorithm   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲

Orthopedics
Canadian CT Head RuleDetermine which minor head injury patients need head CT imaging Canadian C-Spine RuleDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism NEXUS C-Spine CriteriaDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided Ottawa Ankle RulesDoes this ankle injury require an x-ray? Ottawa Knee RulesDoes this knee injury require an x-ray? PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS)Assess limb-salvage potential in trauma to the extremity. Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure Injury Severity ScoreDescribe severity of traumatic injury Mayo AKI Risk after Primary Total Hip ArthroplastyEstimate perioperative risk of acute kidney injury
Otolaryngology (ENT)
General Otolaryngology
Lund-Mackay Sinusitis StageAssess severity of chronic rhinosinusitis and assess response to therapy. Modified Strep Score Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure Bellucci Classification House Brackmann
Head & Neck Cancer Staging
Ethmoid Sinus CarcinomaTNM Staging for Ethmoid Sinus Carcinoma
Hypopharyngeal CarcinomaTNM Staging for Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma Maxillary Sinus CarcinomaTNM Staging for Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma Mucosal Melanoma Nasopharyngeal CarcinomaTNM Staging for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Oral Cavity CarcinomaTNM Staging for Oral Cavity Carcinoma Oropharyngeal CarcinomaTNM Staging for Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Salivary Gland CarcinomaTNM Staging for Salivary Gland Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: AnaplasticTNM Staging for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: MedullaryTNM Staging for Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Carcinoma: Well-DifferentiatedTNM Staging for Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Laryngeal Carcinoma: GlotticTNM Staging for Glottic Laryngeal Carcinoma Laryngeal Carcinoma: SubglotticTNM Staging for Glottic Laryngeal Carcinoma Laryngeal Carcinoma: SupraglotticTNM Staging for Supraglottic Laryngeal Carcinoma
Pediatrics
APGARNewborn assessment SNAP-IV 26 – Teacher & Parent Rating ScaleAssess children for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Pediatric Endotracheal Tube Size Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale Pediatric Strep Score PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Westley Croup ScoreAssess croup severity PIM2Paediatric Index of Mortality, revised version PCDAIPediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Centor Score (modified) for GAS PharyngitisEstimate likelihood of GAS pharyngitis Philadelphia Criteria in Febrile Infants Identify febrile infants aged 29 – 56 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Boston Criteria for Febrile InfantsIdentify febrile infants aged 28 – 89 days old who are lower risk for serious bacterial infection Rochester Criteria for Febrile InfantsIdentify febrile infants aged ≤ 60 days old who are low-risk for serious bacterial infection PECARN Rule for Pediatric Head Injury < 2 years oldAssess the need for neuroimaging in pediatric head trauma PECARN Rule for Pediatric Head Injury ≥ 2 years oldAssess the need for neuroimaging in pediatric head trauma Alberta Croup Severity

REFERENCE BOOK

Tobacco Smoking in Children and Adolescents | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendations Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Developmental Delay | CTFPHCReview Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care guideline on screening for developmental delay

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Obesity in Children | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Recommendation Table Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
ICH FUNC ScorePredict likelihood of functional independence after intracranial hemorrhage Disability Rating Scale (DRS) Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Staging System (NPUAP) DRAGON Score for Post-TPA Stroke OutcomeThe DRAGON Score predicts outcome at 3 months in ischemic stroke patients receiving tPA.
Preventive Medicine
ACC/AHA CV Risk Calculator (2013)Estimate 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Breast Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendation – Summary Clinical Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Clinician CBE BSE Recommendation Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Patient Algorithm   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 40-49   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 50-69   link ⇲ Risks vs Benefits: For ages 70-74   link ⇲ Informational Video   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cervical Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendation – Summary Clinical Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm   link ⇲ Clinician FAQ   link ⇲ Patient Algorithm   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hypertension | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (PDF)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

Clinician Algorithm (PDF)   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Type 2 Diabetes | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Recommendations (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Systematic Review   link ⇲

Tools/Resources

FINDRISC Diabetes Risk Calculator Clinician FAQ   link ⇲ Patient FAQ   link ⇲

REFERENCE BOOK

Tobacco Smoking in Children and Adolescents | CTFPHC

Summary Clinical Recommendations Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Colorectal Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Recommendations Table Clinician Summary Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Cognitive Impairment | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Depression | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Algorithm & FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Developmental Delay | CTFPHCReview Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care guideline on screening for developmental delay

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinical Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Lung Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ 1000-Person Tool Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Obesity in Adults | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinician Algorithm – Calculator Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Obesity in Children | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Recommendation Table Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Pelvic Exam | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Recommendations – Full (Annals of Internal Medicine)   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Prostate Cancer | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Prostate Cancer Infographic 1000-Person Tool Patient FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CTFPHC Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening Video   link ⇲ Mike Evans Screening Video   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Hepatitis C | CTFPHCReview Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care guideline on Hepatitis C screening

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Clinician Recommendations – Full (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Recommendation Table 1000-Person Tool Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Impaired Vision | CTFPHC

Summary of Recommendations for Clinicians and Policy-Makers Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Podcast   link ⇲ Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Guideline Presentation   link ⇲
REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy | CTFPHC

Summary of Recommendations for Clinicians and Policy-Makers Clinician Summary Clinician FAQ Podcast   link ⇲ Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ Guideline Presentation   link ⇲
Respirology
Asthma & COPD
BODE Index for COPDEstimate prognosis in COPD Corticosteroid Equivalence Peak Expiratory Flow Prediction
DVT/PE
DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismUse the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%.
General Respirology
A-a GradientUsed to determine cause of hypoxemia Mortality in IPF (GAP Index)Estimate mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis In-flight PaO₂ (based on ABG) In-flight PaO₂ (ABG & PFT) Nasal Cannula FiO₂ Estimation PaO₂:FiO₂ Ratio Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure VQI: Respiratory Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryEstimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgery TB Skin Test InterpretationDetermine likelihood of TB based on tuberculin skin test Erasmus GBS Respiratory Insufficiency Score (EGRIS)Predict the probability of respiratory insufficiency within the first week of admission, in individual patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Lung Cancer
Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Malignancy Risk NSCLC Stage
Pneumonia
Pneumonia risk (CURB-65)Estimate prognosis and determine disposition in community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia Severity Index (PORT Score)Determine need for admission in pneumonia
Sleep
Epworth Sleepiness ScaleScreen for excessive sleepiness or follow response to treatment for a sleep disorder STOP-BANG Score for Obstructive Sleep ApneaScreen for obstructive sleep apnea
Rheumatology
Ankylosing Spondylitis
ASDAS-CRP (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score)Assess disease activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis. ASDAS-ESR (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score)Assess disease activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis. BASDAIAssess disease activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis
Diagnostic criteria
Adult Onset Still’s Disease, Diagnostic CriteriaDiagnose Adult Onset Still’s Disease. Jones Criteria for Diagnosis of Rheumatic FeverDiagnose acute rheumatic fever Polymyalgia Rheumatica (2012 EULAR/ACR Provisional Criteria)Review EULAR/ACR criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica Scleroderma/Systemic Sclerosis (2013 EULAR/ACR Criteria)Review EULAR/ACR criteria for scleroderma RPDAI (Relapsing Polychondritis Disease Activity Index)Assess disease activity in relapsing polychondritis.
Lupus
SLICC SLE CriteriaThe SLICC criteria are validated criteria for making the diagnosis of lupus. SLEDAI-2KAssess disease activity in lupus SLICC/ACR Damage IndexMeasure accumulated damage since onset of lupus
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Simplified Disease Activity Index for RA (SDAI)Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. DAS28-CRP for Rheumatoid Arthritis Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. DAS28-ESR for Rheumatoid Arthritis Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Disease Activity Index for RA (CDAI)Assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis, without requiring lab work.
Vasculitis
Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI)Document any organ damage that has occurred in patients since the onset of vasculitis
Surgery
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI)Assess disease activity in Crohn’s disease Mayo Score for Ulcerative Colitis ActivityAssess disease activity in ulcerative colitis
Preoperative Assessment
Gupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskDetermine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries. Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure Geriatric-Sensitive Perioperative Cardiac Risk Index | GSCRIEstimate risk of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest in patients over 65
Surgical diagnosis & management
Alvarado Score for Acute AppendicitisDiagnose appendicitis Surgical Apgar ScoreAssess surgical risk of complications or death at 30 days, as assessed in the post-operative period. Modified Marshall ScoreA definition of organ failure in acute pancreatitis Modified Glasgow Imrie Severity Criteria for Acute PancreatitisPredict outcome in acute pancreatitis
Trauma
Canadian CT Head RuleDetermine which minor head injury patients need head CT imaging Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)Document level of consciousness. NEXUS C-Spine CriteriaDetermine whether cervical spine imaging can be safely avoided Ottawa Knee RulesDoes this knee injury require an x-ray? Parkland FormulaManage IV fluids required in burns Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS)Assess limb-salvage potential in trauma to the extremity. NEXUS Chest Decision Instrument for Blunt Chest TraumaAssess the need for chest imaging after blunt trauma Injury Severity ScoreDescribe severity of traumatic injury
WHO Surgical Safety Checklist
Before Induction of AnaesthesiaReduce peri-operative death with the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist – 1st step. Before Patient Leaves ORLast step in the surgical safety checklist Before Skin Incision2nd step in the surgical safety checklist
Transplant
Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 1 Year Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 7 Days Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted at Time of TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Alcohol Relapse Risk after Liver Transplant Gupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskDetermine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries. Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsScoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system Alcohol Relapse Risk after Liver Transplant MELD Score – Age above 12 yearsScoring system used to rank prioritize candidates for liver transplantation, including MELD-Na used in the OPTN match system PELD Score – Age Younger Than 12 yearsPELD (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease) is used for liver allocation in the OPTN match system Predicting 3 Year Survival for Incident Elderly ESRD PatientsDetermine appropriateness for transplant referral in elderly patients starting dialysis Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 1 Year Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted 7 Days Post TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years Renal Graft Failure at 5-Years, Predicted at Time of TransplantEstimate the risk of kidney transplant graft failure at 5 years UKELD ScoreThe United Kingdom Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (UKELD) predicts prognosis in chronic liver disease and can be used to prioritize for liver transplantation
Urology
Nephrolithiasis
ROKS – Recurrence Of Kidney Stone (2014)Predict risk of recurrent kidney stones
Preoperative Assessment
Gupta Perioperative Cardiac RiskDetermine peri-operative risk for a wide array of surgeries. Postoperative Respiratory Failure Risk CalculatorEstimate risk of postoperative respiratory failure Geriatric-Sensitive Perioperative Cardiac Risk Index | GSCRIEstimate risk of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest in patients over 65
Thrombosis
DVT Clinical Probability (Well’s)Determine pretest probability of DVT to guide workup Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI)Predict outcome in patients with pulmonary embolism PE Clinical ProbabilityDetermine pretest probability of PE to guide workup PERC Rule for Pulmonary EmbolismUse the PERC rule to rule out PE if no criteria are present and pre-test probability is <15%.
Urologic disease
Prognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma (UISS)Estimate survival in renal cell carcinoma International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)Assess severity of symptoms in benign prostatic hypertrophy International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5)Assess erectile dysfunction
WHO Surgical Safety Checklist
Before Induction of AnaesthesiaReduce peri-operative death with the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist – 1st step. Before Patient Leaves ORLast step in the surgical safety checklist Before Skin Incision2nd step in the surgical safety checklist
Vascular Surgery
Surgical diagnosis & management
Surgical Apgar ScoreAssess surgical risk of complications or death at 30 days, as assessed in the post-operative period. Revised Venous Clinical Severity ScoreAssess severity of venous disease. ADviSED – Aortic Dissection Detection Risk Score Plus D-Dimer for Aortic SyndromesRule out aortic dissection and other aortic syndromes

REFERENCE BOOK

Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm | CTFPHC

Summary Clinician Summary Clinician Recommendation Table 1000-Person Tool Clinician Recommendation – Complete (CMAJ)   link ⇲ CMAJ Author Podcast   link ⇲
Vascular Quality Initiative Tools
Asymptomatic ICA (Internal Carotid Artery) Stenosis Surgical Risk Stratification VSGNE Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (RAAA) Risk ScoreEstimate mortality after open repair of ruptured AAA Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Carotid EndarterectomyEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | EVAREstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after EVAR Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Infra-inguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after infra-inguinal bypass Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Open AAA RepairEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after open AAA repair VQI: Respiratory Adverse Event Risk Post Vascular SurgeryEstimate the risk of pneumonia or respiratory failure after vascular surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 30-Day Stroke Risk Index for CEAEstimate risk of stroke within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) 1-Year Mortality Risk Index for CEAEstimate probability of death within 1 year after carotid endarterectomy Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Cardiac Risk Index (CRI) | Suprainguinal BypassEstimate risk of post-op myocardial infarction after suprainguinal bypass Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) Postoperative Mortality Rate After Elective AAAEstimate risk of mortality after elective AAA repair VQI EVAR Same-Day Discharge
WHO Surgical Safety Checklist
Before Induction of AnaesthesiaReduce peri-operative death with the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist – 1st step. Before Patient Leaves ORLast step in the surgical safety checklist Before Skin Incision2nd step in the surgical safety checklist

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Emergency / Nephrology

MDRD eGFR

Calculate eGFR using the MDRD formula

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This formula may not be accurate when used in children, elderly patients, specific ethnic groups, pregnant women, those with unusual muscle mass, body habitus, and weight (eg, morbid obesity, amputees) and patients with a normal GFR.

References
Adapted from:
National Kidney Foundation: K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39(Suppl 1):S1.
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Cockcroft-Gault Calculator (with SI Units)
Plasma creatinine (PCR)
mg/dL
umol/L
Weight (wt)
kilogramspounds
GenderMale
Female
Age
Creatinine Clearance
Cockcroft D, Gault MD. Nephron, 16:31-41, 1976
MDRD GFR Calculator
KDOQI Guidelines
Nephron Information Center
by Stephen Z. Fadem, M.D.