Colchicine: MedlinePlus Drug Information - MywallpapersMobi

Colchicine: MedlinePlus Drug Information


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Skeletal formula of colchicine
Ball-and-stick model of the colchicine molecule 2x” data-file-width=”2000″ data-file-height=”1937″ />
Clinical data
Trade names Colcrys, Mitigare, others
AHFS / Monograph
MedlinePlus a682711
  • AU: D
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
ATC code
  • M04AC01 ( WHO )
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • CA: ℞-only
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 45%
Protein binding 35-44%
Metabolism Metabolism, partly by CYP3A4
Elimination half-life 26.6-31.2 hours
Excretion Faeces (65%)
IUPAC name
  • N-[(7S)-1,2,3,10-Tetramethoxy-9-oxo-5,6,7,9-tetrahydrobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamide
CAS Number
  • 64-86-8  ☑Y
PubChem CID
  • 6167
  • 2367
  • DB01394  ☑Y
  • 5933  ☑Y
  • SML2Y3J35T
  • D00570  ☑Y
  • CHEBI:27882  ☑Y
  • ChEMBL107  ☑Y
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.544 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H25NO6
Molar mass 399.437
3D model ( JSmol )
  • Interactive image
  • InChI=1S/C22H25NO6/c1-12(24)23-16-8-6-13-10-19(27-3)21(28-4)22(29-5)20(13)14-7-9-18(26-2)17(25)11-15(14)16/h7,9-11,16H,6,8H2,1-5H3,(H,23,24)/t16-/m0/s1 ☑Y


Colchicine (sold under brand names Colcrys or Mitigare) is a medication most commonly used to treat gout . [1] [2] [3] In addition to gout, colchicine is used to treat familial Mediterranean fever , pericarditis , and Behçet’s disease . [2] Adverse effects are primarily gastrointestinal upset at high doses. [4]

It is a toxic alkaloid and secondary metabolite , originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (autumn crocus, Colchicum autumnale , also known as “meadow saffron”). [2] [5] [6]


  • 1 Medical uses
    • 1.1 Gout
    • 1.2 Other conditions
    • 1.3 Investigative uses
  • 2 Mechanism of action
  • 3 Formulations and dosing
  • 4 Contraindications
  • 5 Adverse effects
  • 6 Toxicity
    • 6.1 Mechanism of toxicity
  • 7 Drug interactions
  • 8 History
    • 8.1 United States Unapproved Drugs Initiative
    • 8.2 Marketing exclusivity in the United States
    • 8.3 Orphan drug
  • 9 Biosynthesis
    • 9.1 Botanical use
  • 10 Regulation
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Medical uses[ edit ]

Gout[ edit ]

Colchicine is an alternative for those unable to tolerate NSAIDs in gout. [7] At high doses, side effects (primarily gastrointestinal upset) limit its use. [2] [8] At lower doses, it is well tolerated. [2] [9] [10] [11] One review found low-quality evidence that low-dose colchicine (1.8 mg in one hour or 1.2 mg per day) reduced gout symptoms and pain, whereas high-dose colchicine (4.8 mg over 6 hours) was effective against pain, but caused more severe side effects, such as diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. [10]

For treating gout symptoms, colchicine is used orally with or without food, as symptoms first appear. [6] Subsequent doses may be needed if symptoms worsen. [6] [10]

Other conditions[ edit ]

Colchicine is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent for long-term treatment of Behçet’s disease . [12] It appears to have limited effect in relapsing polychondritis , as it may only be useful for the treatment of chondritis and mild skin symptoms. [13]

Colchicine is also used in addition to other therapy in the treatment of pericarditis. [12] [14]

Colchicine is used widely in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever , [12] in which it reduces attacks and the long-term risk of amyloidosis . [15]

Investigative uses[ edit ]

Colchicine has demonstrated efficacy for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery . [16]

Mechanism of action[ edit ]

In gout, inflammation in joints results from the precipitation of circulating uric acid , exceeding its solubility in blood and depositing as crystals of monosodium urate in and around synovial fluid and soft tissues of joints. [3] These crystal deposits cause inflammatory arthritis, which is initiated and sustained by mechanisms involving various proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines . [3]

Under preliminary research are various mechanisms by which colchicine may interfere with gout inflammation:

  • inhibits microtubule polymerization by binding to tubulin , one of the main constituents of microtubules [3]
  • as availability of tubulin is essential to mitosis , colchicine may inhibit mitosis [3]
  • inhibits activation and migration of neutrophils to sites of inflammation [6]
  • interferes with the inflammasome complex found in neutrophils and monocytes that mediate interleukin-1β activation, a component of inflammation [6]
  • inhibits superoxide anion production in response to urate crystals [3]
  • interrupts mast cell degranulation [3]

Generally, colchicine appears to inhibit multiple proinflammatory mechanisms, while enabling increased levels of anti-inflammatory mediators. [3] Apart from inhibiting mitosis, colchicine inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading to a net anti-inflammatory effect, which has efficacy for inhibiting or preventing gout inflammation. [3] [6]

Formulations and dosing[ edit ]

Trade names for colchicine are Colcrys or Mitigare which are manufactured as a dark– and light-blue capsule having a dose of 0.6 mg. [6] [17] Colchicine is also prepared as a white, yellow, or purple pill ( tablet ) having a dose of 0.6 mg. [17]

Colchicine is typically prescribed to mitigate or prevent the onset of gout, or its continuing symptoms and pain, using a low-dose prescription of 0.6 to 1.2 mg per day, or a high-dose amount of up to 4.8 mg in the first 6 hours of a gout episode. [4] [6] [10] With an oral dose of 0.6 mg, peak blood levels occur within one to two hours. [5] For treating gout, the initial effects of colchicine occur in a window of 12 to 24 hours, with a peak within 48 to 72 hours. [6] It has a narrow therapeutic window, requiring monitoring of the subject for potential toxicity. [6] Colchicine is not a general pain relief drug, and is not used to treat pain in other disorders. [6]

Contraindications[ edit ]

Long-term ( prophylactic ) regimens of oral colchicine are absolutely contraindicated in patients with advanced renal failure (including those on dialysis ). [6] About 10-20 percent of a colchicine dose is excreted unchanged by the kidneys; it is not removed by hemodialysis . Cumulative toxicity is a high probability in this clinical setting, and a severe neuromyopathy may result. The presentation includes a progressive onset of proximal weakness, elevated creatine kinase , and sensorimotor polyneuropathy . Colchicine toxicity can be potentiated by the concomitant use of cholesterol -lowering drugs. [6]

Adverse effects[ edit ]

Deaths – both accidental and intentional – have resulted from overdose of colchicine. [6] Typical side effects of moderate doses may include gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea , and neutropenia . [2] High doses can also damage bone marrow , lead to anemia , and cause hair loss. All of these side effects can result from inhibition of mitosis , [18] which may include neuromuscular toxicity and rhabdomyolysis . [6]

Toxicity[ edit ]

According to one review, colchicine poisoning by overdose (range of acute doses of 7 to 26 mg) occurs in three phases: 1) a gastrointestinal phase occurring 10-24 hours after ingestion; 2) a phase having poor prognosis involving multiple organ dysfunction occurring 24 hours to 7 days after ingestion, potentially evolving into rapid, progressive multi-organ failure and sepsis ; 3) several weeks would be needed for a complete recovery if there are no complications. [19]

Colchicine can be toxic when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed in the eyes. [2] Colchicine can cause a temporary clouding of the cornea and be absorbed into the body, causing systemic toxicity. Symptoms of colchicine overdose start 2 to 24 hours after the toxic dose has been ingested and include burning in the mouth and throat, fever , vomiting , diarrhea , and abdominal pain . [6] This can cause hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the gastrointestinal tract , which can be fatal. [19] [20]

If the affected person does not recover, a multiple-system organ failure phase of colchicine overdose may result. This includes kidney damage , which causes low urine output and bloody urine ; low white blood cell counts that can last for several days; anemia ; muscular weakness; liver failure ; hepatomegaly ; bone marrow suppression ; thrombocytopenia ; and ascending paralysis leading to potentially fatal respiratory failure . Neurologic symptoms are also evident, including seizures , confusion , and delirium ; children may experience hallucinations . Recovery may begin within six to eight days and begins with rebound leukocytosis and alopecia as organ functions return to normal. [19] [18] Long-term exposure to colchicine can lead to toxicity, particularly of the bone marrow , kidney , and nerves . Effects of long-term colchicine toxicity include agranulocytosis , thrombocytopenia, low white blood cell counts, aplastic anemia , alopecia, rash , purpura , vesicular dermatitis , kidney damage , anuria , peripheral neuropathy , and myopathy . [18]

No specific antidote for colchicine is known, but supportive care is used in cases of overdose. In the immediate period after an overdose, monitoring for gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac dysrhythmias, and respiratory depression is appropriate, [18] and may require gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal or gastric lavage . [19] [20]

Mechanism of toxicity[ edit ]

With overdoses, colchicine becomes toxic as an extension of its cellular mechanism of action via binding to tubulin. [19] Cells so affected undergo impaired protein assembly with reduced endocytosis , exocytosis , cellular motility , and interrupted function of heart cells , culminating in multi-organ failure. [3] [19]

Drug interactions[ edit ]

Colchicine interacts with the P-glycoprotein transporter , and the CYP3A4 enzyme involved in drug and toxin metabolism . [6] [19] Fatal drug interactions have occurred when colchicine was taken with other drugs that inhibit P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4, such as erythromycin or clarithromycin . [6]

People taking macrolide antibiotics , such as ketoconazole and cyclosporine for liver or kidney disease , should not take colchicine, as these drugs may interfere with colchicine metabolism and raise its blood levels, potentially increasing its toxicity abruptly. [6] [19] Symptoms of toxicity include gastrointestinal upset, fever, muscle pain , low blood cell counts , and organ failure. [2] [6] People with HIV/AIDS taking atazanavir , darunavir , fosamprenavir , indinavir , lopinavir , nelfinavir , ritonavir , or saquinavir may experience colchicine toxicity. [6] Grapefruit juice and statins can also increase colchicine concentrations. [6]

History[ edit ]

The plant source of colchicine, the autumn crocus ( Colchicum autumnale ), was described for treatment of rheumatism and swelling in the Ebers Papyrus (circa 1500 BC), an Egyptian medical papyrus. [21] Colchicum extract was first described as a treatment for gout in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides , in the first century AD. Use of the bulb-like corms of Colchicum to treat gout probably dates to around 550 AD, as the “hermodactyl” recommended by Alexander of Tralles . Colchicum corms were used by the Persian physician Avicenna , and were recommended by Ambroise Pare in the 16th century, and appeared in the London Pharmacopoeia of 1618. [22] Colchicum plants were brought to North America by Benjamin Franklin , who suffered from gout himself and had written humorous doggerel about the disease during his stint as United States Ambassador to France . [23]

Colchicine was first isolated in 1820 by the French chemists P. S. Pelletier and J. B. Caventou . [24] In 1833, P. L. Geiger purified an active ingredient, which he named colchicine. [25] The determination of colchicine’s structure required decades, although in 1945, Michael Dewar made an important contribution when he suggested that, among the molecule’s three rings, two were seven-member rings. [26] Its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects for gout were linked to its ability to bind with tubulin.

United States Unapproved Drugs Initiative[ edit ]

An unintended consequence of the 2006 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety program called the Unapproved Drugs Initiative — through which the FDA sought more rigorous testing of efficacy and safety of colchicine and other unapproved drugs [27] — was a price increase of 2000 percent [28] for “a gout remedy so old that the ancient Greeks knew about its effects.” [28] Under Unapproved Drugs Initiative small companies like URL Pharma — Philadelphia drugmaker — were rewarded with licenses for testing of medicines like colchicine. In 2009, the FDA reviewed a New Drug Application for colchicine submitted by URL Pharma. URL Pharma did the testing, gained FDA formal approval and was granted rights over colchicine. With this monopoly pricing power, the price of colchicine increased.

In 2012 Asia’s biggest drugmaker — Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. — acquired URL Pharma for $800 million including the rights to colchicine (brand name Colcrys) earning $1.2 billion in revenue by raising the price even more. [28]

Oral colchicine had been used for many years as an unapproved drug with no FDA-approved prescribing information, dosage recommendations, or drug interaction warnings. [29] On July 30, 2009 the FDA approved colchicine as a monotherapy for the treatment of three different indications ( familial Mediterranean fever , acute gout flares, and for the prophylaxis of gout flares [29] ), and gave URL Pharma a three-year marketing exclusivity agreement [30] in exchange for URL Pharma doing 17 new studies and investing $100 million into the product, of which $45 million went to the FDA for the application fee. URL Pharma raised the price from $0.09 per tablet to $4.85, and the FDA removed the older unapproved colchicine from the market in October 2010, both in oral and intravenous forms, but gave pharmacies the opportunity to buy up the older unapproved colchicine. [31] Colchicine in combination with probenecid has been FDA-approved prior to 1982. [30]

In August 2009, colchicine won FDA approval in the United States as a stand-alone drug for the treatment of acute flares of gout and familial Mediterranean fever. [32] [33] It had previously been approved as an ingredient in an FDA-approved combination product for gout. The approval was based on a study in which two doses (1.2 mg and 0.6 mg) an hour apart were as effective as higher doses in combating the acute flare of gout. [11]

Marketing exclusivity in the United States[ edit ]

As a drug antedating the FDA, colchicine was sold in the United States for many years without having been reviewed by the FDA for safety and efficacy. The FDA reviewed approved colchicine for gout flares, awarding Colcrys a three-year term of market exclusivity, prohibiting generic sales, and increasing the price of the drug from $0.09 to $4.85 per tablet. [34] [35] [36]

Numerous consensus guidelines, and previous randomized controlled trials, had concluded that colchicine is effective for acute flares of gouty arthritis. However, as of 2006, the drug was not formally approved by the FDA, owing to the lack of a conclusive randomized control trial (RCT). Through the Unapproved Drugs Initiative, the FDA sought more rigorous testing of efficacy and safety of colchicine and other unapproved drugs. [27] In exchange for paying for the costly testing, the FDA gave URL Pharma three years of market exclusivity for its Colcrys brand, [37] under the Hatch-Waxman Act , based in part on URL-funded research in 2007, including pharmacokinetic studies and a randomized control trial with 185 patients with acute gout.

In April 2010, an editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine said that the rewards of this legislation are not calibrated to the quality or value of the information produced, that no evidence of meaningful improvement to public health was seen, and that it would be less expensive for the FDA, the National Institutes of Health or large insurers to pay for trials themselves. Furthermore, the cost burden of this subsidy falls primarily on patients or their insurers. [38] In September 2010, the FDA ordered a halt to marketing unapproved single-ingredient oral colchicine. [39]

Colchicine patents expire on February 10, 2029. [40]

Orphan drug[ edit ]

URL Pharma also received seven years of market exclusivity for Colcrys in treatment of familial Mediterranean fever , under the Orphan Drug Law . URL Pharma then raised the price per tablet from $0.09 to $4.85 and sued to remove other versions from the market, increasing annual costs for the drug to U.S. state Medicaid programs from $1 million to $50 million. Medicare also paid significantly higher costs—making this a direct money-loser for the government. (In a similar case, thalidomide was approved in 1998 as an orphan drug for leprosy and in 2006 for multiple myeloma .) [38]

Biosynthesis[ edit ]

Several experiments show that the biosynthesis of colchicine involves the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine as precursors. Indeed, the feeding of C. autumnale with radioactive amino acid, tyrosine-2-C14, caused the latter to partially incorporate in the ring system of colchicine. The induced absorption of radioactive phenylalanine-2-C14 by C. byzantinum, another plant of the Colchicaceae family, resulted in its efficient absorption by colchicine. [41] However, it was proven that the tropolone ring of colchicine resulted, in essence, from the expansion of the tyrosine ring.
Further radioactive feeding experiments of C. autumnale revealed that colchicine can be synthesized biosynthetically from (S)-autumnaline. That biosynthesic pathway occurs primarily through a para-para phenolic coupling reaction involving the intermediate isoandrocymbine. The resulting molecule undergoes O-methylation directed by S-adenosylmethionine. Two oxidation steps followed by the cleavage of the cyclopropane ring leads to the formation of the tropolone ring contained by N-formyldemecolcine. N-formyldemecolcine hydrolyzes then to generate the molecule demecolcine, which also goes through an oxidative demethylation that generates deacetylcolchicine. The molecule of colchicine appears finally after addition of acetyl-coenzyme A to deacetylcolchicine. [42] [43]


Botanical use[ edit ]

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Since chromosome segregation is driven by microtubules, colchicine is also used for inducing polyploidy in plant cells during cellular division by inhibiting chromosome segregation during meiosis ; half the resulting gametes , therefore, contain no chromosomes, while the other half contains double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., diploid instead of haploid , as gametes usually are), and lead to embryos with double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., tetraploid instead of diploid). While this would be fatal in most higher animal cells, in plant cells it is not only usually well tolerated, but also frequently results in larger, hardier, faster-growing, and in general more desirable plants than the normally diploid parents; for this reason, this type of genetic manipulation is frequently used in breeding plants commercially.

When such a tetraploid plant is crossed with a diploid plant, the triploid offspring are usually sterile (unable to produce fertile seeds or spores ), although many triploids can be propagated vegetatively . Growers of annual triploid plants not readily propagated must buy fresh seed from a supplier each year. Many sterile triploid plants, including some tree and shrubs , are becoming increasingly valued in horticulture and landscaping because they do not become invasive species . In certain species, colchicine-induced triploidy has been used to create “seedless” fruit, such as seedless watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Since most triploids do not produce pollen themselves, such plants usually require cross-pollination with a diploid parent to induce fruit production.

Colchicine’s ability to induce polyploidy can be also exploited to render infertile hybrids fertile, for example in breeding triticale (× Triticosecale) from wheat (Triticum spp.) and rye (Secale cereale) . Wheat is typically tetraploid and rye diploid, with their triploid hybrid infertile; treatment of triploid triticale with colchicine gives fertile hexaploid triticale.

When used to induce polyploidy in plants, colchicine cream is usually applied to a growth point of the plant, such as an apical tip, shoot, or sucker. Also, seeds can be presoaked in a colchicine solution before planting. Another way to induce polyploidy is to chop off the tops of plants and carefully examine the regenerating lateral shoots and suckers to see if any look different. [44] If no visual difference is evident, flow cytometry can be used for analysis.

Doubling of plant chromosome numbers also occurs spontaneously in nature, with many familiar plants being fertile polyploids . [45] Natural hybridization between fertile parental plants of different levels of polyploidy can produce new plants at an intermediate level, such as a triploid produced by crossing between a diploid and a tetraploid, or a hexaploid produced by crossing between a tetraploid and an octoploid .

Regulation[ edit ]

It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. [46]

References[ edit ]

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h “Colcrys (colchicine, USP) tablets 0.6 mg. Drug Approval Package” . US Food and Drug Administration. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
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  22. ^ Hartung EF (September 1954). “History of the use of colchicum and related medicaments in gout; with suggestions for further research” (PDF). Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 13 (3): 190–200. doi : 10.1136/ard.13.3.190 . PMC   1006735 . PMID   13198053 . (free BMJ registration required)
  23. ^ Ebadi MS (2007). Pharmacodynamic basis of herbal medicine . ISBN   978-0-8493-7050-2 .
  24. ^ Pelletier and Caventou (1820) “Examen chimique des plusieurs végétaux de la famille des colchicées, et du principe actif qu’ils renferment. [Cévadille (veratrum sabadilla) ; hellébore blanc (veratrum album) ; colchique commun (colchicum autumnale)]” (Chemical examination of several plants of the meadow saffron family, and of the active principle that they contain.) Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 14 : 69-81.
  25. ^ Geiger, Ph. L. (1833) “Ueber einige neue giftige organische Alkalien” (On some new poisonous organic alkalis) Annalen der Pharmacie, 7 (3) : 269-280; colchicine is discussed on pages 274-276.
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  29. ^ a b “FDA Approves Colchicine With Drug Interaction and Dose Warnings” . July 2009.
  30. ^ a b “Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations” .
  31. ^ “Questions and Answers for Patients and Healthcare Providers Regarding Single-ingredient Oral Colchicine Products” .
  32. ^ “FDA Approves Gout Treatment After Long Years of Use” . 3 August 2009.
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  35. ^ Meyer H (29 December 2009). “The High Price of FDA Approval” . Kaiser Health News and the Philadelphia Inquirer .
  36. ^ Colcrys vs. Unapproved Colchicine Statement from URL Pharma
  37. ^ “About Colcrys” . Colcrys. URL Pharma. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  38. ^ a b Kesselheim AS, Solomon DH (June 2010). “Incentives for drug development–the curious case of colchicine” . The New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (22): 2045–7. doi : 10.1056/NEJMp1003126 . PMID   20393164 .
  39. ^ “FDA orders halt to marketing of unapproved single-ingredient oral colchicine” . 30 September 2010.
  40. ^ “Generic Colcrys Availability” .
  41. ^ Leete E (1963). “The biosynthesis of the alkaloids of Colchicum: The incorporation of phenylalaline-2-C14 into colchicine and demecolcine”. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85 (22): 3666–3669. doi : 10.1021/ja00905a030 .
  42. ^ Dewick PM (2009). Medicinal Natural Products: A biosynthetic Approach. Wiley. pp. 360–362.
  43. ^ Maier UH, Meinhart HZ (1997). “Colchicine is formed by para para phenol-coupling from autumnaline”. Tetrahedron Lett. 38 (42): 7357–7360. doi : 10.1016/s0040-4039(97)10011-9 .CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( link )
  44. ^ Deppe C (1993). Breed Your own Vegetable Varieties. Little, Brown & Company. pp. 150–151. ISBN   0-316-18104-8 .
  45. ^ Derman H, Emsweller SL. “The use of colchicine in plant breeding” . Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  46. ^ “40 CFR Appendix A to Part 355, The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities” . LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2018-03-11.

External links[ edit ]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Colchicine .
  • Dowd, Matthew J. (April 30, 1998). “Colchicine” . Virginia Commonwealth University. Archived from the original on 2010-06-10.
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      COMMON BRAND(S): Colcrys

      GENERIC NAME(S): Colchicine

      OTHER NAME(S): Colchicine Tablet

      Read Reviews (163) Find Lowest Prices

      • Uses
      • Side Effects
      • Precautions
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      This medication is used to prevent or treat gout attacks (flares). Usually gout symptoms develop suddenly and involve only one or a few joints. The big toe, knee , or ankle joints are most often affected. Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood . When uric acid levels in the blood are too high, the uric acid may form hard crystals in your joints. Colchicine works by decreasing swelling and lessening the build up of uric acid crystals that cause pain in the affected joint (s).

      This medication is also used to prevent attacks of pain in the abdomen , chest, or joints caused by a certain inherited disease ( familial Mediterranean fever ). It is thought to work by decreasing your body’s production of a certain protein (amyloid A) that builds up in people with familial Mediterranean fever.

      Colchicine is not a pain medication and should not be used to relieve other causes of pain .

      How to use Colchicine

      Read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start taking colchicine and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions regarding the information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

      Take this medication by mouth with or without food, exactly as directed by your doctor. Dosing recommendations vary widely and may be different from the following recommendations. Taking more than the recommended dose may not increase this drug’s effectiveness and may increase your risk for side effects. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

      If you are taking this medication to treat a gout attack, carefully follow the directions given by your doctor. This medication works best if you take it at the first sign of an attack. The recommended dose is 1.2 milligrams at the first sign of an attack, followed by 0.6 milligrams one hour later. The maximum recommended dose is 1.8 milligrams taken over a 1-hour period. Ask your doctor ahead of time about how soon you can repeat treatment with this medication if you have another gout attack.

      If you are taking this medication to prevent gout attacks or for pericarditis , ask your doctor about the dose and schedule you should follow. Carefully follow your doctor’s directions.

      If you are taking this medication to prevent attacks of pain caused by familial Mediterranean fever , the usual dose is 1.2 to 2.4 milligrams daily. The total dose may be taken once daily or divided into two doses a day. Your doctor may need to adjust your dose to control your symptoms or if you have side effects.

      The dosage is based on your medical condition, other drugs/foods you may be taking, and response to treatment. To reduce your risk for serious side effects, do not increase your dose, take it more frequently, or take it for a longer time than directed by your doctor. Serious side effects may occur even at usual prescribed doses.

      If your doctor directs you to take colchicine regularly, use it regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day.

      Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while being treated with this medication unless your doctor instructs you otherwise. Grapefruit can increase the amount of certain medications in your bloodstream. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

      If you are taking this medication to treat symptoms due to familial Mediterranean fever, tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens.

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      Side Effects

      Side Effects

      Diarrhea , nausea , cramping, abdominal pain , and vomiting may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

      Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

      Stop taking this medication and get medical help right away if any of these very serious side effects occur: unusual bleeding/bruising, severe diarrhea or vomiting , muscle weakness or pain, numbness/tingling in your fingers or toes, pale or gray color of the lips/ tongue /palms of hands, signs of infection (such as fever, persistent sore throat ), unusual weakness/tiredness, fast heartbeat, shortness of breath, signs of kidney problems (such as change in the amount of urine).

      A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction , including: rash , itching /swelling (especially of the face/ tongue /throat), severe dizziness , trouble breathing .

      This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

      In the US –

      Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at

      In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

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      Before taking this medication , tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies . This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

      Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney problems, liver problems (such as cirrhosis ).

      Alcohol can decrease this drug’s effectiveness. Limit alcohol while taking this drug.

      This medication can affect how well your body absorbs some foods and nutrients (such as vitamin B12 ). Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

      Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs , nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

      Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially muscle weakness /pain and numbness/tingling in their fingers or toes.

      Colchicine can decrease sperm production, which may affect the ability of a male to father a child. Consult your doctor for more information.

      During pregnancy , this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

      This medication passes into breast milk. While there have been no reports of harm to nursing infants, consult your doctor before breast -feeding. Your doctor may recommend that you separate the time(s) you take your medication apart from breast-feeding.

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      See also How to Use and Precautions sections.

      The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

      To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs , nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor’s approval.

      Other medications can affect the removal of colchicine from your body, which may affect how colchicine works or increase the risk of serious side effects. Examples include certain azole antifungals (such as itraconazole , ketoconazole ), diltiazem , HIV medications (such as ritonavir ), macrolide antibiotics (such as clarithromycin , erythromycin ), telithromycin , verapamil , among others.

      Colchicine may rarely cause a certain serious (even fatal) muscle damage ( rhabdomyolysis ). This muscle damage releases substances that can lead to serious kidney problems. The risk may be increased if other drugs that may also cause rhabdomyolysis are taken along with colchicine. Some affected drugs include: atorvastatin , digoxin , gemfibrozil , pravastatin , simvastatin , among others.

      This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests, possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

      This document does not contain all possible drug interactions . Keep a list of all the products you use. Share this list with your doctor and pharmacist to lessen your risk for serious medication problems.

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      If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing , call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe nausea / vomiting / diarrhea , abdominal pain , trouble breathing , weakness .


      Do not share this medication with others.

      Being overweight , drinking too much alcohol, and eating certain foods may worsen gout symptoms . Limit alcohol and ask your doctor, pharmacist , or dietitian about avoiding foods high in purines that may worsen gout (such as anchovies, bacon, beer, sardines, organ meats including liver / kidneys ).

      Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as blood tests, kidney function, liver function ) may be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

      Missed Dose

      If you are taking colchicine regularly and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.


      Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

      Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.Information last revised September 2017. Copyright(c) 2017 First Databank, Inc.

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      colchicine 0.6 mg capsule

      colchicine 0.6 mg capsuleiconicon
      colchicine 0.6 mg capsule

      dark blue,light blue
      West- ward, 118
      colchicine 0.6 mg tablet

      colchicine 0.6 mg tableticonicon
      colchicine 0.6 mg tablet

      AR 374

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      colchicine 0.6 mg capsule

      colchicine 0.6 mg capsule

      dark blue,light blue
      West- ward, 118

      This medicine is a dark blue light blue, oblong, capsule imprinted with “West- ward” and “118”.

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      colchicine 0.6 mg tablet

      colchicine 0.6 mg tablet

      AR 374

      This medicine is a purple, oblong, scored, film-coated, tablet imprinted with “AR 374”.

      Next: Side Effects

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        Targets (2) Enzymes (4) Transporters (4) Biointeractions (14)


        Accession Number
        Small Molecule

        A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (periodic disease). [PubChem]




        Similar Structures

        Structure for Colchicine (DB01394)

        • Colchicin
        • Colchicina
        • Colchicinum
        Product Images

        Previous Next

        Prescription Products
        NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
        ColchicineTablet1 mgOralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc1950-12-312012-06-14Canada
        ColchicineCapsule0.6 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2014-10-01Not applicableUs
        ColchicineCapsule0.6 mg/1OralWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2014-10-01Not applicableUs 0143 301820180913 8702 ndobl1
        ColchicineCapsule0.6 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2018-04-01Not applicableUs
        ColchicineCapsule0.6 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2014-10-01Not applicableUs
        Colchicine Tab 0.6mgTablet0.6 mgOralOdan Laboratories Ltd1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
        Colchicine Tab 0.6mgTablet0.6 mgOralD.C. Labs Limited1969-12-312003-07-11Canada
        Colchicine Tab 0.6mgTablet0.6 mgOralAbbott1951-12-312007-07-31Canada
        Colchicine Tab 1mgTablet1 mgOralOdan Laboratories Ltd1985-12-312013-03-06Canada
        ColcrysTablet, film coated0.6 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-10-19Not applicableUs 13310 0119 07 nlmimage10 ea04f527
        Generic Prescription Products
        NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
        ColchicineTablet, film coated0.6 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2018-07-01Not applicableUs
        ColchicineTablet, film coated0.6 mg/1OralPrasco Laboratories2015-01-122021-10-31Us 66993 0165 02 nlmimage10 8e404752
        ColchicineTablet0.6 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York Llc2016-09-30Not applicableUs
        ColchicineTablet, film coated0.6 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2018-08-01Not applicableUs
        ColchicineTablet, film coated0.6 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2017-07-132018-12-31Us
        Euro-colchicineTablet0.6 mgOralEuro Pharm International Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
        Jamp-colchicineTablet0.6 mgOralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-10-07Not applicableCanada
        Jamp-colchicineTablet1.0 mgOralJamp Pharma Corporation2011-10-072013-04-03Canada
        PMS-colchicineTablet0.6 mgOralPharmascience Inc2013-02-27Not applicableCanada
        Mixture Products
        NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
        Probenecid and ColchicineColchicine (0.5 mg/1) + Probenecid (500 mg/1)TabletOralAv Kare, Inc.2012-05-082016-02-01Us
        Probenecid and ColchicineColchicine (0.5 mg/1) + Probenecid (500 mg/1)TabletOralActavis Pharma Company1982-10-01Not applicableUs 00591 5325 01 nlmimage10 240e1210
        Probenecid and ColchicineColchicine (0.5 mg/1) + Probenecid (500 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-04-242013-05-30Us
        Probenecid and ColchicineColchicine (0.5 mg/1) + Probenecid (500 mg/1)TabletOralIngenus Pharmaceuticals Nj, Llc2008-05-132008-05-13Us
        Probenecid and ColchicineColchicine (0.5 mg/1) + Probenecid (500 mg/1)TabletOralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-05-13Not applicableUs
        Verban OntColchicine (100 mg) + Podophyllin (2 g)OintmentTopicalWelcker Lyster Ltd., Division Of Technilab Inc.1963-12-311999-09-17Canada
        Unapproved/Other Products

        NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
        ColchicineColchicine (0.6 mg/1)TabletOralWest Ward Pharmaceutical1990-10-082010-12-28Us 0143 120120180906 25352 1nfrw6k
        ColchicineColchicine (0.6 mg/1)TabletOralRebel Distributors1990-10-082011-04-13Us
        ColchicineColchicine (0.6 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-05-122010-12-29Us
        ColchicineColchicine (0.6 mg/1)TabletOralRemedy Repack2010-11-102011-11-10Us
        • Alkaloids
        • Antigout Preparations
        • Antimitotic Agents
        • CYP3A Substrates (Sensitive)
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inhibitors
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inducers
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inhibitors
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 Inducers
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Substrates
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Inducers
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Inhibitors
        • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Substrates
        • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inducers
        • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
        • Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors
        • Immunosuppressive Agents
        • Mitosis Modulators
        • Musculo-Skeletal System
        • Myelosuppressive Agents
        • P-Glycoprotein Interactions
        • P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors
        • P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates
        • Preparations With No Effect on Uric Acid Metabolism
        • Tubulin Modulators
        CAS number
        Average: 399.437
        Monoisotopic: 399.168187537
        Chemical Formula
        InChI Key
        IUPAC Name



        For treatment and relief of pain in attacks of acute gouty arthritis.

        Associated Conditions
        • Behcet’s Syndrome
        • Chronic Gouty Arthritis
        • Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF )
        • Gout Flares
        • Pericarditis
        • Postpericardiotomy Syndrome

        Colchicine is a highly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the "Meadow saffron"). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. Its present medicinal use is mainly in the treatment of gout; as well, it is being investigated for its potential use as an anti-cancer drug. It can also be used as initial treatment for pericarditis and preventing recurrences of the condition.

        Mechanism of action

        The precise mechanism of action has not been completely established. In patients with gout, colchicine apparently interrupts the cycle of monosodium urate crystal deposition in joint tissues and the resultant inflammatory response that initiates and sustains an acute attack. Colchicine decreases leukocyte chemotaxis and phagocytosis and inhibits the formation and release of a chemotactic glycoprotein that is produced during phagocytosis of urate crystals. Colchicine also inhibits urate crystal deposition, which is enhanced by a low pH in the tissues, probably by inhibiting oxidation of glucose and subsequent lactic acid production in leukocytes. Colchicine has no analgesic or antihyperuricemic activity. Colchicine inhibits microtubule assembly in various cells, including leukocytes, probably by binding to and interfering with polymerization of the microtubule subunit tubulin. Although some studies have found that this action probably does not contribute significantly to colchicine’s antigout action, a recent in vitro study has shown that it may be at least partially involved.

        A Tubulin beta-1 chain
        A Tubulin beta chain

        Colchicine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, probably from the jejunum and ileum. However, the rate and extent of absorption are variable, depending on the tablet dissolution rate; variability in gastric emptying, intestinal motility, and pH at the absorption site; and the extent to which colchicine is bound to microtubules in gastrointestinal mucosal cells.

        Volume of distribution
        • 5 to 8 L/kg [healthy young volunteers]
        Protein binding

        Low to moderate (30 to 50%).


        Probably hepatic. Although colchicine metabolites have not been identified in humans, metabolism by mammalian hepatic microsomes has been demonstrated in vitro.

        Route of elimination

        In healthy volunteers (n=12) 40 – 65% of 1 mg orally administered colchicine was recovered unchanged in urine.
        Enterohepatic recirculation and biliary excretion are also postulated to play a role in colchicine elimination.

        Half life

        Elimination half-life is approximately 1 hour in healthy subjects, although a study with an extended sampling time reported mean terminal elimination half-life values of approximately 9 to 10.5 hours. Other studies have reported half-life values of approximately 2 hours in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and approximately 2.5 hours in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.

        • 0.17 L/hr/kg [familial Mediterranean fever patients with end-stage renal disease]
        • 0.73 L/hr/kg [familial Mediterranean fever patients with normal renal function]

        The onset of toxic effects is usually delayed for several hours or more after the ingestion of an acute overdose. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea occur first. The diarrhea may be bloody due to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Burning sensations of the throat, stomach, and skin may be prominent symptoms. Extensive vascular damage may result in shock. Kidney damage, evidenced by hematuria and oliguria, may occur. Muscular weakness may be marked, and ascending paralysis of the central nervous system may develop; the patient usually remains conscious. Delirium and convulsions may occur. Death due to respiratory arrest may result. Although death from the ingestion of as little as 7 mg has been reported, much larger doses have been survived .

        Affected organisms
        • Humans and other mammals
        Not Available
        Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Browse all ” title=”About SNP Mediated Effects/ADRs” href=”javascript:void(0);”>

        Not Available


        Drug Interactions Learn More ” title=”About Drug Interactions” href=”javascript:void(0);”>

        • All Drugs
        • Approved
        • Vet approved
        • Nutraceutical
        • Illicit
        • Withdrawn
        • Investigational
        • Experimental
        (R)-warfarin The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
        (S)-Warfarin The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
        2-Methoxyethanol The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Colchicine is combined with 2-Methoxyethanol.
        3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
        4-hydroxycoumarin The metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Colchicine.
        5-androstenedione The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with 5-androstenedione.
        6-Deoxyerythronolide B The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
        6-O-benzylguanine The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with 6-O-benzylguanine.
        9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Colchicine is combined with 9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A.
        9-aminocamptothecin The metabolism of Colchicine can be decreased when combined with 9-aminocamptothecin.
        Food Interactions
        • Avoid alcohol since it increases uric acid levels.
        • Drink liberally.
        • Take without regard to meals.


        Synthesis Reference

        Christian Wehrey, "Colchicine derivatives, process for preparing them, products obtained therefrom and use thereof." U.S. Patent US20040138182, issued July 15, 2004.


        General References
        Not Available
        External Links
        Human Metabolome Database
        KEGG Drug
        KEGG Compound
        PubChem Compound
        PubChem Substance
        Therapeutic Targets Database
        Guide to Pharmacology
        GtP Drug Page
        RxList Drug Page Drug Page
        ATC Codes
        M04AC01 — Colchicine

        • M04AC — Preparations with no effect on uric acid metabolism
        AHFS Codes
        • 92:16.00 — Antigout Agents
        Download (74.9 KB)

        Clinical Trials

        Clinical Trials Learn More ” title=”About Clinical Trials” href=”javascript:void(0);”>

        0CompletedBasic Science Acute Gouty Arthritis / Hypertriglyceridemias / Pericarditis 1
        1CompletedBasic Science Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF ) 1
        1CompletedBasic Science Healthy Volunteers 6
        1CompletedBasic Science Healthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics 1
        1CompletedBasic Science Healthy; Adult; Volunteer; Colchicine; Pharmacokinetics; Diltiazem; Cytochrome p450 3A4; P-glycoprotein 1
        1CompletedBasic Science Pharmacokinetics 11
        1CompletedTreatment Renal Replacement Therapies 1
        1RecruitingTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis 1
        1Unknown StatusTreatment Liver Cirrhosis 1
        1, 2CompletedTreatment BMI >30 kg/m2 / Metabolic Diseases 1
        1, 2RecruitingTreatment Diabetic Nephropathies 1
        2Active Not RecruitingTreatment Chagas Disease / Colchicine Resistance 1
        2CompletedPrevention Acute Gouty Arthritis 1
        2CompletedSupportive Care Atherosclerotic Vascular Diseases 1
        2CompletedTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis 3
        2CompletedTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis / Hyperuricemia 3
        2CompletedTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis / Moderate Renal Impairment 1
        2CompletedTreatment Behcet’s Syndrome 1
        2Not Yet RecruitingTreatment Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) 1
        2RecruitingOther Coronary Artery Disease 1
        2RecruitingOther Coronary Artery Disease / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 1
        2RecruitingTreatment Colchicine / Coronary Artery Disease / Inflammatory Reaction / Severe or persistent diarrhea / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / White Blood Cell 1
        2RecruitingTreatment Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa / Henoch-Schönlein Purpura / IgA Vasculitis / Primary Cutaneous Vasculitis 1
        2RecruitingTreatment Hepatocellular,Carcinoma / Invasion / Metastasis 1
        2RecruitingTreatment Myocardial Infarction 1
        2RecruitingTreatment Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation 1
        2TerminatedTreatment Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection 1
        2Unknown StatusTreatment Diabetic Nephropathies 1
        2Unknown StatusTreatment Stomatitis, Aphthous 1
        2WithdrawnTreatment Prostate Cancer 1
        2, 3CompletedTreatment Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) 1
        2, 3CompletedTreatment Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) 1
        2, 3RecruitingTreatment Heart Diseases / Single-ventricle 1
        3Active Not RecruitingPrevention Coronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction 1
        3CompletedPrevention Arrythmias 1
        3CompletedPrevention Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Thoracic Surgery 1
        3CompletedPrevention Postpericardiotomy Syndrome 1
        3CompletedTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis 2
        3CompletedTreatment Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary 1
        3CompletedTreatment Pericarditis 1
        3CompletedTreatment Pericarditis / Recurrences 1
        3Not Yet RecruitingPrevention Strokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) 1
        3RecruitingPrevention Atrial Flutter / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Thoracic Surgery 1
        3RecruitingPrevention Colchicine Adverse Reaction / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Surgery, Cardiac 1
        3RecruitingPrevention Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Strokes 1
        3RecruitingTreatment Chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate 1
        3RecruitingTreatment ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction 1
        3Unknown StatusPrevention Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Pericardial Effusion / Pleural Effusions / Post-pericardiotomy Syndrome / Surgery, Cardiac 1
        3Unknown StatusTreatment Constriction / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Post-pericardiotomy Syndrome 1
        3Unknown StatusTreatment Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachments 1
        3WithdrawnTreatment Asthma Bronchial / Chronic Lung Diseases 1
        4Active Not RecruitingTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis 1
        4CompletedBasic Science Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) 1
        4CompletedBasic Science Healthy Volunteers 1
        4CompletedBasic Science Pharmacokinetics 1
        4CompletedDiagnostic Acute Gouty Arthritis 1
        4CompletedTreatment Acute Gouty Arthritis 1
        4CompletedTreatment Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery 1
        4CompletedTreatment Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF ) 1
        4CompletedTreatment Healthy Volunteers 1
        4CompletedTreatment Intercritical Gout 1
        4CompletedTreatment Pericarditis / Recurrences 1
        4CompletedTreatment Primary Gout 1
        4RecruitingTreatment Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease 1
        4RecruitingTreatment Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) 1
        4RecruitingTreatment Coronary Artery Disease 1
        4RecruitingTreatment Manipulation Under Anesthesia 1
        4RecruitingTreatment Myocardial Infarction 1
        4RecruitingTreatment Pericardial Effusion 1
        4Unknown StatusTreatment Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) 1
        4Unknown StatusTreatment Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) 1
        Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatment Diabetic Nephropathies 1
        Not AvailableCompletedTreatment Fibrosis, Liver 1
        Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatment Calcific Tendonitis 1
        Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatment Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) 1


        Not Available
        • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
        • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
        • Apotheca Inc.
        • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
        • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
        • Bedford Labs
        • Bryant Ranch Prepack
        • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
        • Concord Labs
        • Consolidated Midland Corp.
        • DispenseXpress Inc.
        • Dispensing Solutions
        • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
        • Excellium Pharmaceutical Inc.
        • Heartland Repack Services LLC
        • Major Pharmaceuticals
        • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
        • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
        • PCA LLC
        • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
        • Pharmedix
        • Physicians Total Care Inc.
        • Prepackage Specialists
        • Prepak Systems Inc.
        • Redpharm Drug
        • Remedy Repack
        • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
        • Schein Pharmaceutical Inc.
        • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
        • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
        • Sunrise Pharmaceutical Inc.
        • United Research Laboratories Inc.
        • Vangard Labs Inc.
        • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
        • Vision Pharma LLC
        • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
        Dosage forms
        CapsuleOral0.6 mg/1
        TabletOral0.6 mg/1
        TabletOral1 mg
        TabletOral0.6 mg
        Tablet, film coatedOral0.6 mg/1
        TabletOral1.0 mg
        Unit descriptionCostUnit
        Colchicine powder306.6USD g
        Colcrys 0.6 mg tablet5.82USD tablet
        Colchicine 0.6 mg tablet0.58USD tablet
        Colchicine 1 mg Tablet0.55USD tablet
        DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
        Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
        US7601758 No2009-10-132029-02-10Us
        US7619004 No2009-11-172028-12-03Us
        US7820681 No2010-10-262029-02-17Us
        US7906519 No2011-03-152029-02-17Us
        US7915269 No2011-03-292029-02-17Us
        US7935731 No2011-05-032028-12-03Us
        US7964647 No2011-06-212028-10-06Us
        US7964648 No2011-06-212028-10-06Us
        US7981938 No2011-07-192028-10-06Us
        US8093296 No2012-01-102028-10-06Us
        US8093297 No2012-01-102028-10-06Us
        US8093298 No2012-01-102028-10-06Us
        US8097655 No2012-01-172028-10-06Us
        US8415395 No2013-04-092028-10-06Us
        US8415396 No2013-04-092028-10-06Us
        US8440721 No2013-05-142029-02-17Us
        US8440722 No2013-05-142029-02-17Us
        US8927607 No2015-01-062033-08-22Us
        US9399036 No2016-07-262033-08-22Us
        US9675613 No2017-06-132033-08-22Us
        US9555029 No2017-01-312033-08-22Us
        US9789108 No2017-10-172033-08-22Us


        Experimental Properties
        melting point (°C)156 °CPhysProp
        water solubility4.5E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)SEIDELL,A (1941)
        logP1.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
        pKa1.85SANGSTER (1994)
        Predicted Properties
        Water Solubility0.0276 mg/mL ALOGPS
        logP1.59 ALOGPS
        logP1.46 ChemAxon
        logS-4.2 ALOGPS
        pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.06 ChemAxon
        pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.038 ChemAxon
        Physiological Charge0 ChemAxon
        Hydrogen Acceptor Count6 ChemAxon
        Hydrogen Donor Count1 ChemAxon
        Polar Surface Area83.09 Å2 ChemAxon
        Rotatable Bond Count5 ChemAxon
        Refractivity111.38 m3·mol-1 ChemAxon
        Polarizability42.41 Å3 ChemAxon
        Number of Rings3 ChemAxon
        Bioavailability1 ChemAxon
        Rule of FiveYes ChemAxon
        Ghose FilterYes ChemAxon
        Veber’s RuleNo ChemAxon
        MDDR-like RuleNo ChemAxon
        Predicted ADMET features
        Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9856
        Blood Brain Barrier+0.7865
        Caco-2 permeable+0.5119
        P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.594
        P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8007
        P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6956
        Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8997
        CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8042
        CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
        CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7359
        CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
        CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
        CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
        CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
        CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
        CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7959
        Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
        BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6489
        Rat acute toxicity2.3748 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
        hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9877
        hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7394
        ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR , a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. ( 23092397 )


        Mass Spec (NIST)
        Download (2.96 KB)
        SpectrumSpectrum Type Splash Key
        Predicted GC-MS Spectrum – GC-MS Predicted GC-MSNot Available
        Predicted MS/MS Spectrum – 10V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
        Predicted MS/MS Spectrum – 20V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
        Predicted MS/MS Spectrum – 40V, Positive (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
        Predicted MS/MS Spectrum – 10V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
        Predicted MS/MS Spectrum – 20V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
        Predicted MS/MS Spectrum – 40V, Negative (Annotated) Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
        LC-MS/MS Spectrum – LC-ESI-QTOF , positive LC-MS/MS splash10-0udi-0000900000-c73c5a28a750cece607a
        LC-MS/MS Spectrum – LC-ESI-QTOF , positive LC-MS/MS splash10-0udi-0049400000-2a76bd81d41e1bc5925c
        LC-MS/MS Spectrum – LC-ESI-QTOF , positive LC-MS/MS splash10-0gba-0091000000-fb24bc910ffe7bd74811


        This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tropones. These are compounds containing a tropone ring, which is a cycloheptatrienone ring bearing a ketone group.
        Organic compounds
        Super Class
        Hydrocarbon derivatives
        Sub Class
        Not Available
        Direct Parent
        Alternative Parents
        Anisoles / Alkyl aryl ethers / Cyclic ketones / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides
        Anisole / Tropone / Alkyl aryl ether / Benzenoid / Cyclic ketone / Carboximidic acid / Carboximidic acid derivative / Ether / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
        Molecular Framework
        Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
        External Descriptors
        aromatic ether, alkaloid, acetamides, carbotricyclic compound ( CHEBI:23359 ) / an alkaloid ( CPD-9785 )


        Details 1. Tubulin beta-1 chain

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
        Specific Function
        Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Tubulin beta-1 chain
        Molecular Weight
        50326.56 Da
        1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [ PubMed:17139284 ]
        2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [ PubMed:17016423 ]
        3. Acharya BR, Choudhury D, Das A, Chakrabarti G: Vitamin K3 disrupts the microtubule networks by binding to tubulin: a novel mechanism of its antiproliferative activity. Biochemistry. 2009 Jul 28;48(29):6963-74. doi: 10.1021/bi900152k. [ PubMed:19527023 ]
        4. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Oct;45(10):1160-6. doi: 10.1002/jms.1804. [ PubMed:20814887 ]
        5. Finkelstein Y, Aks SE, Hutson JR, Juurlink DN, Nguyen P, Dubnov-Raz G, Pollak U, Koren G, Bentur Y: Colchicine poisoning: the dark side of an ancient drug. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 Jun;48(5):407-14. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2010.495348. [ PubMed:20586571 ]
        6. Cerquaglia C, Diaco M, Nucera G, La Regina M, Montalto M, Manna R: Pharmacological and clinical basis of treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) with colchicine or analogues: an update. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005 Feb;4(1):117-24. [ PubMed:15720245 ]

        Details 2. Tubulin beta chain

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
        Specific Function
        Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Tubulin beta chain
        Molecular Weight
        49670.515 Da
        1. Yee KW, Hagey A, Verstovsek S, Cortes J, Garcia-Manero G, O’Brien SM, Faderl S, Thomas D, Wierda W, Kornblau S, Ferrajoli A, Albitar M, McKeegan E, Grimm DR, Mueller T, Holley-Shanks RR, Sahelijo L, Gordon GB, Kantarjian HM, Giles FJ: Phase 1 study of ABT-751, a novel microtubule inhibitor, in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6615-24. [ PubMed:16166440 ]
        2. Acharya BR, Choudhury D, Das A, Chakrabarti G: Vitamin K3 disrupts the microtubule networks by binding to tubulin: a novel mechanism of its antiproliferative activity. Biochemistry. 2009 Jul 28;48(29):6963-74. doi: 10.1021/bi900152k. [ PubMed:19527023 ]
        3. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Oct;45(10):1160-6. doi: 10.1002/jms.1804. [ PubMed:20814887 ]
        4. Cerquaglia C, Diaco M, Nucera G, La Regina M, Montalto M, Manna R: Pharmacological and clinical basis of treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) with colchicine or analogues: an update. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005 Feb;4(1):117-24. [ PubMed:15720245 ]


        Details 1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
        Specific Function
        Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react…
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Cytochrome P450 3A4
        Molecular Weight
        57342.67 Da
        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [ PubMed:19934256 ]
        2. Dvorak Z, Ulrichova J, Modriansky M, Maurel P: Effect of colchicine and its derivatives on the expression of selected isoforms of cytochrome P450 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Acta Univ Palacki Olomuc Fac Med. 2000;143:47-50. [ PubMed:11144118 ]
        3. Tateishi T, Soucek P, Caraco Y, Guengerich FP, Wood AJ: Colchicine biotransformation by human liver microsomes. Identification of CYP3A4 as the major isoform responsible for colchicine demethylation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 10;53(1):111-6. [ PubMed:8960070 ]
        4. Dvorak Z, Modriansky M, Pichard-Garcia L, Balaguer P, Vilarem MJ, Ulrichova J, Maurel P, Pascussi JM: Colchicine down-regulates cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4 in human hepatocytes by affecting their glucocorticoid receptor-mediated regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;64(1):160-9. doi: 10.1124/mol.64.1.160. [ PubMed:12815172 ]

        Details 2. Cytochrome P450 2B6

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Steroid hydroxylase activity
        Specific Function
        Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un…
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Cytochrome P450 2B6
        Molecular Weight
        56277.81 Da
        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [ PubMed:19934256 ]
        2. Dvorak Z, Modriansky M, Pichard-Garcia L, Balaguer P, Vilarem MJ, Ulrichova J, Maurel P, Pascussi JM: Colchicine down-regulates cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4 in human hepatocytes by affecting their glucocorticoid receptor-mediated regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;64(1):160-9. doi: 10.1124/mol.64.1.160. [ PubMed:12815172 ]

        Details 3. Cytochrome P450 2C8

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Steroid hydroxylase activity
        Specific Function
        Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un…
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Cytochrome P450 2C8
        Molecular Weight
        55824.275 Da
        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [ PubMed:19934256 ]
        2. Dvorak Z, Modriansky M, Pichard-Garcia L, Balaguer P, Vilarem MJ, Ulrichova J, Maurel P, Pascussi JM: Colchicine down-regulates cytochrome P450 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, and 3A4 in human hepatocytes by affecting their glucocorticoid receptor-mediated regulation. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;64(1):160-9. doi: 10.1124/mol.64.1.160. [ PubMed:12815172 ]

        Details 4. Cytochrome P450 2E1

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Steroid hydroxylase activity
        Specific Function
        Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic …
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Cytochrome P450 2E1
        Molecular Weight
        56848.42 Da
        1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [ PubMed:19934256 ]
        2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [ PubMed:11996015 ]


        Details 1. Multidrug resistance protein 3

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
        Specific Function
        Energy-dependent phospholipid efflux translocator that acts as a positive regulator of biliary lipid secretion. Functions as a floppase that translocates specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) from …
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Phosphatidylcholine translocator ABCB4
        Molecular Weight
        141521.845 Da
        1. Vollrath V, Wielandt AM, Acuna C, Duarte I, Andrade L, Chianale J: Effect of colchicine and heat shock on multidrug resistance gene and P-glycoprotein expression in rat liver. J Hepatol. 1994 Nov;21(5):754-63. [ PubMed:7890890 ]

        Details 2. Solute carrier family 22 member 3

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Toxin transporter activity
        Specific Function
        Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Solute carrier family 22 member 3
        Molecular Weight
        61279.485 Da
        1. Grundemann D, Schechinger B, Rappold GA, Schomig E: Molecular identification of the corticosterone-sensitive extraneuronal catecholamine transporter. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Sep;1(5):349-51. [ PubMed:10196521 ]

        Details 3. Multidrug resistance protein 1

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
        Specific Function
        Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Multidrug resistance protein 1
        Molecular Weight
        141477.255 Da
        1. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [ PubMed:11602674 ]
        2. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [ PubMed:12699389 ]
        3. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [ PubMed:14985103 ]
        4. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [ PubMed:12948019 ]
        5. Ambudkar SV, Lelong IH, Zhang J, Cardarelli CO, Gottesman MM, Pastan I: Partial purification and reconstitution of the human multidrug-resistance pump: characterization of the drug-stimulatable ATP hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8472-6. [ PubMed:1356264 ]
        6. Bebawy M, Morris MB, Roufogalis BD: A continuous fluorescence assay for the study of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux using inside-out membrane vesicles. Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 15;268(2):270-7. [ PubMed:10075817 ]
        7. Kuo CC, Hsieh HP, Pan WY, Chen CP, Liou JP, Lee SJ, Chang YL, Chen LT, Chen CT, Chang JY: BPR0L075, a novel synthetic indole compound with antimitotic activity in human cancer cells, exerts effective antitumoral activity in vivo. Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 1;64(13):4621-8. [ PubMed:15231674 ]
        8. Tiwari AK, Sodani K, Wang SR, Kuang YH, Ashby CR Jr, Chen X, Chen ZS: Nilotinib (AMN107, Tasigna) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the activity of the ABCB1/Pgp and ABCG2/BCRP/MXR transporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 15;78(2):153-61. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Apr 11. [ PubMed:19427995 ]

        Details 4. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

        Pharmacological action
        General Function
        Transporter activity
        Specific Function
        Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre…
        Gene Name
        Uniprot ID
        Uniprot Name
        Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
        Molecular Weight
        171589.5 Da
        1. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [ PubMed:9281595 ]

        Drug created on July 08, 2007 11:02 / Updated on December 01, 2018 04:30