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mcwhitman TEACHER

Revolutionary War Review

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Minutemen
American colonists who were ready to fight at a minute’s notice.
Guerilla Warfare
Fighters who use hit and run attacks and sneak attacks. They learned this from the Native Americans.
Boston Tea Party
Sam Adams and Sons of Liberty dumped British tea into Boston harbor. They were protesting the Tea Act ( a British tax on tea).
Intolerable Acts
Series of Laws passed by England to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party.
Boycott
To refuse to buy products. Colonies boycotted English goods.
Natural Rights
Rights that we’re born with. Life Libterty and Pursuit of happiness. England tried to take these rights.
Hessians
German Army that fought on the side of England
Loyalist
Colonists who remained loyal to England.
Valley Forge
Where Washington’s army camped during winter. People had no shoes, were sick with smallpox, had little food and few supplies. Many died. Washington put smallpox virus into people’s cuts to make them immune to the disease.
John Paul Jones
Started U.S . Navy. He kept getting promoted to Navy captain.
Main ideas of Declaration of Independence
A letter that stated what a good government SHOULD look like, reasons why the king was a BAD king, an explanation of why we wanted to break away from England and form our own INDEPENDENT country.
Common Sense
An essay by Thomas Paine that tried to convince people to fight for independence.
The Treaty of Paris
After the war, the British recognized the U.S. as an independent nation. The borders of the U.S. were drawn between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River. This treaty ended the Revolutionary War.
Boston Massacre
British soldiers shot and killed five colonists. The soldiers were armed with guns, while the colonists had snowballs, chunks of ice, and clubs used for fishing. When the five colonists were shot, Paul Revere drew a political cartoon that showed the colonists as completely innocent and unarmed. The political cartoon spread through the colonies and convinced colonists that the British were cold blooded killers. The colonists were outraged.
Lexington and Concord
Where the first skirmishes (small fights) of the Revolution happened. The first shots of the Revolution were fired here.
Battle of Bunker Hill
The first major battle of the Revolution. The American leader was William Prescott and the British General was William Howe. Americans killed many British soldiers and the British were shocked by this. The British won the battle, but it showed that the Americans were in the war to win it!!
Battle of Saratoga
A major turning point in the war. British leader Burgoyne had to surrender to the American army on October 17, 1777. The battle ended the British threat to New England. It boosted American spirits and convinced France to help America.
Battle of Trenton
GEORGE WASHINGTON crossed the icy winter Delaware River in order to sneak attack the HESSIANS (German troops who were fighting for Britain). The sneak attack took place on the morning after Christmas, when Washington knew the Germans would be drunk from celebrating. Washington was successful and took most of the Hessians prisoner.
Battle of Yorktown
Final battle of the Revolutionary War. American victory that won the Revolutionary War!!!!!

French soldiers joined George Washington’s troops and supported the U.S. by land and by sea. America/France surrounded the English troops and they were forced to surrender.

The British general commander was Cornwallis and he was defeated.

Olive Branch Petition
Last attempt to make peace with England before the Revolutionary War really got going.
Causes of the Revolutionary War
Colonists were over-taxed by England. They were angry that they weren’t represented in England’s government ("No taxation without representation!!"). The Boston Massacre also made colonists angry. All of this led up to the war.
Second Continental Congress
12 of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia to decide whether or not to start a war with England for independence. The colonies decided to declare war.
Petition
A letter to someone in power asking for something that you want. If enough people sign it, you’ll hopefully get what you want. Colonists sent a petition to the British king.
Patriot (Colonial) Army Advantages
The colonial army used sneak attacks and Native American guerrilla warfare. The colonists became allies with France. The colonists knew the land (FAMILIAR TERRITORY) and the British did not. They had supplies available in America (as opposed to the British who needed supplies sent to them from England).
Proclamation of 1763
Right after the French and Indian War, England made the colonists angry by passing this Proclamation that banned colonists from settling past the Appalachian Mountains. This was one of the causes that led to the Revolutionary War.
Tea Act
The British began taxing tea. This tax made the colonists angry with England. This was one of the causes that led to the Revolutionary War.
Stamp Act
The British began taxing legal documents (wills, diplomas, marriage licenses), almanacs, newspapers, playing cards, dice, etc. this made colonists angry because they were being taxed without representation in British Parliament (Government). NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!! This was a major cause of the war.
Why did the British have to leave Boston in the early stages of the Revolutionary War?
At Fort Tichonderoga, Colonists seized cannons and brought them to Boston. That forced the British to leave because the Colonists had the cannons on high ground pointed toward the British.
What was the first group that protested British policies?
Sons of Liberty
Militia
A citizen army. The American colonists had a militia.
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kreardon12

Declaration of Independence-Revolutionary War

History Unit 3

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Thomas Paine
Wrote common sense
Thomas Paine
Inspired troops with his writings by encouraging them not to quit and fight on
Thomas Paine
Encouraged the colonists to break away and not let an island rule a country
John Hancock
Biggest signer of the Declaration of Independance
John Hancock
President of 2nd Continental Congress
Benedict Arnold
Colonial military leader and helped lead the victory at Battle of Saratoga
Benedict Arnold
Americans most famous traitor; changed sides when he was passed over a promotion
Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of Independance
Ben Franklin
Influential speaker, writer, printer and negotiator who helped convince the French to be our ally
Daniel Morgan
Helped lead the troops to victory at Saratoga and assist N. Greene in the war in the south with guerrilla tactics
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army
George Washington
Delegated duties well, mastered the art of retreating and lost more battles than he had won, but won the important ones
Nathanael Greene
Daring patriot general who won the support of southerners by leading Brits on a wild goose chase.
Marquis de Lafayette
Frenchman who helped the colonists and became one of Washington’s most trusted generals
John Adams
One of the first colonial leaders to argue for separation from england
John Adams
Massachusetts patriot who helped organize the 2nd Continental Congress and helped choose George Washington as the commander of the Army
George Rogers Clark
Served the Continental Army by fighting and winning Indian wars in the west
George Rogers Clark
"George Washington of the west" who prevented two front war
Baron Fredreich Von Stueben
German soldier who helped train troops at Valley Forge
Baron Fredreich Von Stueben
Taught the colonists to load and fire their guns faster
Henry Knox
Trusted general; brought the cannons to Boston for Washington’s use.
King George lll
Person Declaration of Independence was written to ; attacked in common sense
Continental Army
Name for Patriot Army
Battle of Bunker Hill
Colonial defeat outside of Boston that proved the colonists had the will to put up a good fight against Brits
Battle of Bunker Hill
Colonists lost because they ran out of gun powder
Battle of Trenton
Surprise attack on Hessian fort;great victory and capture of enemy supplies
Battle of Trenton
Was produced by Washington crossing the Delaware River on December 25th.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point in the American Revolution because it was inspired french to help us defeat Britain.
Battle of Saratoga
Battle in Eastern NY where the colonists overwhelmed the Brits with Guerrilla Tactics & superior battle decisions
Battle of Yorktown
Final defeat of the British in the American revolution
Battle of Yorktown
British General Cornwallis is trapped by Washington and the French fleet in Virginia
2nd Continental Congress
Organization of colonial leaders that created the Dec. of Independence and provided government to the rebellious colonists during war.
Strengths Brits
Experienced troops, large armies
Strengths Brits
Vast amount of supplies, great generals
Strengths of Patriots
Knew the land and was fighting for a reason
Strengths of Patriots
George Washington was their battle field leader
Weakness of Brits
Didn’t know land fighting for pay
Weakness of Brits
3000 miles away, had lots of land to cover and pay
Weakness of Patriots
Lack of money, allies and fighting the strongest army in the world
Weakness of Patriots
Lacked experience, training and resources to fight
Valley Forge
Winter Encampment for Continental Army in 1777-1778 in suburban
Valley Forge
Learned to be a team and fight together despite horrible conditions
War in the South
Was won by Greene & Morgan exhausted British troops on a wild goose chase chase
War in the South
Goose chase caused caused Brits to loot and raid southern villages and resulted and resulted in conditions turning against Engand
Treaty of Paris
US took control of all land east of the Mississippi
Treaty of Paris
Spain got Florida
Treaty of Paris
Gained Independence from England
Hessian
German mercenary hire to fight the patriot army
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