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- J Gen Physiol
- v.55(4); 1970 Apr 1
Passive Electrical Properties of Paramecium and Problems of Ciliary Coordination
Potential recordings made simultaneously from opposite ends of the cell indicate that the cytoplasmic compartment of P. caudatum is nearly isopotential. Measured decrements of the spread of steady-state potentials are in essential agreement with calculated decrements for a short cable model of similar dimensions and electrical constants. Action potentials and passively conducted pulses spread at rates of over 100 µm per msec. In contrast, metachronal waves of ciliary beat progress over the cell with velocities below 1 µm per msec. Thus, electrical activity conducted by the plasma membrane cannot account for the metachronism of ciliary beat. The electrical properties of Paramecium are responsible, however, for coordinating the reorientation of cilia (either beating or paralyzed by NiCl2) which occurs over the entire cell in response to current passed across the plasma membrane. In response to a depolarization the cilia assume an anteriorly directed orientation (“ciliary reversal” for backward locomotion). The cilia over the anterior half of the organism reverse more strongly and with shorter latency than the cilia of the posterior half. This was true regardless of the location of the polarizing electrode. Since the membrane potential was shown to be essentially uniform between both ends of the cell, the cilia of the anterior and posterior must possess different sensitivities to membrane potential.
These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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Articles from The Journal of General Physiology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press
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Schoolnet Protists Review
A. They divide vertically.
B. They produce gametes.
C. They conjugate.
D. They form spores.
A. a single-celled organism.
B. multiple organisms.
C. an inorganic substance.
D. a group of cells.
A .A paramecium captures food with a vacuole.
B. A paramecium sweeps food into its oral groove.
C. A paramecium makes its food using photosynthesis.
D. A paramecium secretes enzymes to break food down.
A. Both can conjugate.
B. Neither can conjugate.
C. An amoeba can conjugate, but a paramecium cannot.
D. A paramecium can conjugate, but an amoeba cannot.
A. able to produce gametes
B. can perform photosynthesis
C. has an organelle for movement
D. lives as one of a colony of cells
A .The amoeba is made of one cell.
B. The amoeba has limited respiration.
C. The amoeba can produce its own food.
D. The amoeba has organs that work together to form systems.
D. contractile vacuole
A the method used to obtain nutrients and energy
B the process used to constantly remove excess water
C the method used to detect changes in their environment
D the process used to remove waste products from their cytoplasm
B cell wall
A They divide vertically.
B They produce gametes.
C They conjugate.
D They form spores.
A A paramecium does not live where there is light.
B A paramecium does not photosynthesize its own food.
C A paramecium lives in shallower water than a euglena.
D A paramecium uses cilia instead of a flagellum to move.
A None of the euglena species form colonies.
B All euglena species use flagella for movement.
C Some euglena species are full-time heterotrophs.
D All euglena species have eyespots to detect light.
A A euglena can respond to light.
B A euglena can live in fresh water.
C A euglena can regulate water intake.
D A euglena can only reproduce asexually.
A plant and animal like protist
B animal like protist
C plant like protist
D neither plant or animal like protist
A amoeba and paramecium
B euglena and volvox
C amoeba and paramecium
D euglena and volvox
A paramecium and euglena
B volvox and euglena
C paramecium and amoeba
D volvox and paramecium
A amoeba and volvox
B paramecium and volvox
C amoeba and euglena
D volvox and euglena
A animal like protist
B a plant like protist
C a plant and animal like protist
D none of these answers
animal like protist
A A euglena takes food in through its gullet and deposits it into a food vacuole.
B A euglena attaches to the surface of its food and secretes enzymes to digest it.
C A euglena wraps around the food and gradually builds a cell membrane around it.
D A euglena sweeps food into its gullet and breaks it down with cellular contractions.
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