APA Parenthetical Documentation




CRLS Research Guide




>
Citing Sources: Parenthetical Documentation

Tip Sheet 16

Ask these questions:

What in the world is that?

  • It is way to let people know where your information comes from.
  • Whenever you use material that you got from another source in your research project,
    you must let your audience know immediately where it came from, right after you
    use it.

 

Why should I do it?

  • It lets your reader know that you want to make clear to them which are your ideas/words/pictures,
    etc. and which are someone else’s. If you do not cite your sources, you are committing
    plagiarism (Plagiarism is an unlawful act in which you use someone else’s work
    as if it is your own. It can get you in big trouble. Avoid it.).

     

  • It gives your
    Thesis Statement a lot more credibility because you obviously didn’t just make
    up what you are claiming. You did your research!

     

  • Your reader can check the original source for more information or for accuracy if
    they want to challenge you.

 

When do I have to do it?

You must cite your sources when using the following kinds of materials, in whole
or in part
:

  • Direct quotations whether in written or oral formats (includes stories, speeches,
    fiction and nonfiction)

  • Paraphrased quotations (these are quotes whose words you have changed somewhat)
  • Statistical Data (numbers about things)
  • Images that are attributed to someone (includes cartoons, photos, maps, artwork,
    computer graphics-but not free “clip art”)

  • Song lyrics
  • Original ideas that are attributed to someone else, even if you put them in your
    own words

 

How do I do it?

Citing your sources can be done as “footnotes” or “endnotes” but
they are a pain to do.

Now you can use “parenthetical documentation” and it is very easy. The
word “parenthetical” is a clue to the meaning. It means “within parentheses”.

There are two main ways to do this type of citing or “documentation”.

One way to do it is this:

At the end of the borrowed material, put in parentheses the author’s last name and
the page(s) where the material is found within the source.

It looks like this:

“No nation in the world has so many drastic problems squeezed into so small a place,
under such urgent pressure of time and heavy burden of history, as Israel” 
(Tuchman 123).

Tuchman is the author’s last name and the quote is on page 123 of a book you will
list in your Works
Cited at the end of your project. Therefore the reader can get that book
immediately if they want to and check that you have copied the quote correctly,
or simply read the book, if they have the interest. The quote is in quotation marks
because it is used directly as found within the source. If you paraphrase you don’t
have to use quotation marks.

Another way to do it is this:

Use the author’s name in the text that you write and put the page number(s) in parentheses
at the end of the borrowed material.

That way looks like this:

Barbara Tuchman said,”No nation in the world has so many drastic problems squeezed
into so small a place, under such urgent pressure of time and heavy burden of history,
as Israel” (123).

Although it looks pretty straightforward, you will run into some unusual cases,
like books with more than one author, books with no author, websites, interviews,
etc. So I will direct you to two places to find out how to cite different kinds
of sources. The first is Tip Sheet #19: Making a Works Cited. The second is the
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, fifth edition (Gibaldi)
which can be found in most libraries including CRLS. Go to the section on “Documentation:
Citing sources in the Text”. These 2 resources will give you the many variations
of citation formats. Or, you can ask a librarian!

WHERE TO GO FROM HERE:

Tip Sheet 19: Making a Works Cited

www.crlsresearchguide.org/19_Making_Works_Cited.asp

Click here for information about how to cite different kinds of sources.

Tip Sheet 15: Creating the Body of your Project

www.crlsresearchguide.org/15_Body_Of_Paper.asp

Click here to go back and find out more about Creating the Body of your
Project

Worksheets:


Source Recording Form

www.crlsresearchguide.org/worksheets/Source_Recording_Form.htm

Print this form and use it to record your source’s information.


Citation Maker

http://elementary.oslis.org/resources/cm/mlacitationse

Try this excellent tool from the Oregon School Library Information System.
With its help, you can cite many different kinds of sources according to
the MLA style. Check the “Help” link to find out how to save your citations.



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MLA Parenthetical Documentation


In MLA style, in-text citations, called parenthetical citations, are used to
document any external sources used within a document (unless the material cited
is considered general knowledge). The parenthetical citations direct readers
to the full bibliographic citations listed in the Works Cited, located at the
end of the document. In most cases, the parenthetical citations include the
author’s last name and the specific page number for the information cited. Here
are general guidelines for in-text citations, including use
of authors’ names , placement of citations , and
treatment of electronic sources .


Use of Authors’ Names

Always mention the author’s name—either in the text itself or in the
parenthetical citation—unless no author is provided.

If the author’s name is mentioned in the text

If the author’s name is used in the text introducing the source material,
then cite the page number(s) in parentheses:

Branscomb argues that "it’s a good idea to lurk (i.e., read all the
messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure that you
don’t break any of the rules of netiquette" (7) when joining a listserv.

If the author’s name is not mentioned in the text

If the author’s name is not used in the sentence introducing the source material,
then include the author’s last name in the parenthetical citation before the
page number(s). Note that no comma appears between the author’s name and the
page number(s).

The modern world requires both the ability to concentrate on one thing and
the ability to attend to more than one thing at a time: "Ideally, each
individual would cultivate a repertoire of styles of attention, appropriate
to different situations, and would learn how to embed activities and types
of attention one within another" (Bateson 97).

If there is more than one work by the same author

If a document uses more than one work by an individual author, include an
abbreviated form of the title of the work in addition to the author’s name and
relevant page number(s). Separate the author’s name and the title with a comma:

Hypertextuality makes text borderless as it "redefines not only beginning
and endings of the text but also its borders—its sides, as it were"
(Landow, Hypertext 2.0 79).

If two authors have the same last name

If the document uses two sources by authors with the same last name, include
the author’s first name in the text or the parenthetical citation:

Tom Peters talks about a company that facilitates employees’ renewal by
shutting down its factory for several hours per week while teams work through
readings on current business topics (57).

If there are two or three authors

If a source has two or three authors, place all of the authors’ last names
in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

A team can be defined as "a small number of people with complementary
skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach
for which they hold themselves mutually accountable" (Katzenbach and
Smith 45).

If there are four or more authors

If a source has four or more authors, include the first author’s last name
followed by et al. (Latin for and others), either in the text or in the parenthetical
citation. You can also name all of the authors:

Cogdill et al. argue that "making backchannel overtly available for
study would require making its presence and content visible and its content
persist, affecting the nature of the backchannel and raising social and ethical
issues" (109).

If the source has a corporate author

If a source has a corporate author, include the author’s name and the page(s).
If the corporate author’s name is long, it should be included in the text rather
than the parentheses:

According to the Centre for Development and Population Activities, interest
in gender roles and responsibilities over the past decade has been "driven
by the realization that women often do not benefit from development activities
and in some cases become even poorer and more marginalized" (3).

If no author is identified

If a source does not include an author’s name, substitute for the author’s
name the title or an abbreviated title in the text or parenthetical citation.
Underline the title if the source is a book; if the source is an article, use
quotation marks:

The use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has grown substantially
over the past five years as companies attempt to adapt to customer needs and
to improve their profitability ("Making CRM Work").

 

Go to the top of the page

 


Placement of Citations

  • Place a citation as close to the quoted or paraphrased material as possible
    without disrupting the sentence.
  • When material from one source and the same page numbers is used throughout
    a paragraph, use one citation at the end of the paragraph rather than a citation
    at the end of each sentence.
  • Parenthetical citations usually appear after the final quotation mark and
    before the period. An exception occurs, however, in quotes of four or more
    lines since these quotes are presented as block quotes: that is, they are
    indented and use no quotation marks. In such cases, the parenthetical citation
    goes after the period, as the following example shows:

    Bolles argues that the most effective job hunting method is what he calls

    the creative job hunting approach:

    figuring out your best skills, and favorite knowledges, and then

    researching any employer that interests you, before approaching

    that organization and arranging, through your contacts, to see the

    person there who has the power to hire you for the position you

    are interested in. This method, faithfully followed, leads to a job
    for

    86 out of every 100 job-hunters who try it. (57)

     

Go to the top of the page

 


Treatment of Electronic Sources

In-text citations for electronic sources are treated in most respects as print
texts are. The only real difference occurs because electronic texts do not have
page numbers (unless the source is in PDF format or otherwise mimics a print
version of the source). Sometimes, numbered paragraphs appear on an electronic
source. In such cases, use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. The paragraph
number should appear in your citation following the abbreviation par. If an
electronic source includes section numbers or screen numbers, use those numbers
after the word section or screen. Most often, however, the source will have
no paragraph, section, or screen numbers. In such instances, include no number
in the parentheses, as shown below:

The Collaborative Virtual Workspace (CVW) prototype is being used by

the Defense Department for crisis management (Davidson and Deus).

 

Go to the top of the page


These guidelines are taken from two books by Joseph Gibaldi: The MLA Handbook
for Writers of Research Papers
(Sixth Edition, New York: Modern Language
Association, 2003) and the MLA Style Guide to Scholarly Publishing (Second
Edition, New York: Modern Language Association, 1998).

 

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© 2004 The Write Place

LEO: Literacy Education Online

This page was written by Judith Kilborn for The Write Place, St.
Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota, and may be copied for educational
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Updated: 16 March 2004


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LEO:Literacy Education Online

APA In-Text (Parenthetical) Documentation


In APA style, source material is cited using a system that emphasizes the author
and date of publication in its in-text citations. These in-text citations—used
when source material is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized—point to full
bibliographic citations located in the reference page at the end of the document.
Here are general guidelines for in-text citations that cover the use of authors’
names , placement of in-text citations , and treatment of nonrecoverable and electronic
sources .


Use of Authors’ Names

In APA style, only the author’s last name is used in the document as a whole
and within in-text citations in particular.


If the author’s name is mentioned in the text

Most often, an author’s last name appears in the text with the date of publication
immediately following in parentheses:

Bolles (2000) provides a practical, detailed approach to job hunting.

If the author’s name is not mentioned in the text

When the author’s name does not appear in the text itself, it appears in the
parenthetical citation followed by a comma and the date of publication:

Interactive fiction permits readers to move freely through a text and to
participate in its authorship (Bolter, 2001).

Note: If you cite the same source a second time within a paragraph, the year
of publication may be omitted.

If there are two authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the source
is cited in the text:

Katzenbach and Smith (1993) define a team as "a small number of people
with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance
goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable"
(p. 45).

If the authors’ names appear in the text itself, connect the names with the
word and; however, if the authors’ names appear parenthetically, connect the
names with an ampersand (&):

A team is defined as "a small number of people with complementary skills
who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for
which they hold themselves mutually accountable" (Katzenbach & Smith,
1993, p. 45).

If there are three, four, or five authors

When you cite for the first time a work with three, four, or five authors,
cite all authors:

Cogdill, Fanderclai, Kilborn, and Williams (2001) argue that "making
backchannel overtly available for study would require making its presence
and content visible and its content persist, affecting the nature of the backchannel
and raising social and ethical issues" (p. 109).

(Again, if the authors’ names appear parenthetically rather than in the text
itself, connect the final two names with a comma and an ampersand). In all subsequent
citations, include only the name of the first author followed by et al. (the
abbreviation for the Latin phrase meaning "and others"):

Cogdill et al. (2001) assert that "backchannel is multithreaded, substantial,
and governed by many social conventions" (p. 109).

Again, if the authors’ names appear parenthetically rather than in the text
itself, connect the final two names with a comma and an ampersand.

If there are six or more authors

If a work has six or more authors, cite the last name of the first author
followed by et al. in all citations:

Adkins et al. (2001) studied the use of collaborative technology during
a multinational, civil-military exercise.

If two authors have the same last name

If a document includes sources by two authors with the same last name, include
the first and middle initial of each author in all text citations:

R. P. Allen (1994) and D. N. Allen (1998) have both studied the effects
of email monitoring in the workplace.


If two or more sources are cited

When citing two or more sources by different authors within the same citation,
place the authors’ names in parentheses in alphabetical order, followed by the
year of publication and separated by a semicolon:

Hypertext significantly changes the process of information retrieval (Bolter
2001; Bush, 1945; Landow 1997).


If no author is identified

If no author is identified, use an abbreviated title instead, followed by
the date. Use quotation marks around article or chapter titles, and underline
book, periodical, brochure, and report titles:

The use of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems has grown substantially
over the past five years as companies attempt to adapt to customer needs and
to improve their profitability ("Making CRM Work").


Placement of Citations for Quoted Material

Specific page numbers for paraphrased or quoted material appear within the parenthetical
citation following the abbreviation for page (p.). The location of the parenthetical
citation for a quote depends upon the placement of quoted material within the
sentence:

  • If the quotation appears in midsentence, insert the final quotation mark,
    followed by the parenthetical citation; then complete the sentence.

    Branscomb (1998) argues that "it’s a good idea to lurk (i.e., read
    all the messages without contributing anything) for a few weeks, to ensure
    that you don’t break any of the rules of netiquette" (p. 7) when
    you join a listserv.

  • If the quotation appears at the end of the sentence, insert the final quotation
    mark, followed by the parenthetical citation and the end punctuation:

    Branscomb (1998) argues that when you join a listserv, "it’s a
    good idea to lurk (i.e., read all the messages without contributing anything)
    for a few weeks, to ensure that you don’t break any of the rules of netiquette"
    (p. 7).

  • If the quotation is long (40 words or more), it should be formatted as
    a block quotation, and the parentheses should appear after the final punctuation
    mark:

    Bolles (2000) argues that the most effective job hunting method is
    what he calls the creative job hunting approach: figuring out your best
    skills, and favorite knowledges, and then researching any employer that
    interests you, before approaching that organization and arranging, through
    your contacts, to see the person there who has the power to hire you
    for the position you are interested in. This method, faithfully followed,
    leads to a job for 86 out of every 100 job-hunters who try it. (57)


Treatment of Nonrecoverable Sources and Recoverable
Electronic Sources

Nonrecoverable sources

Personal communications (letters, interviews, email, and other nonrecoverable
sources) are cited in the text of the paper rather than in the reference list
at the end. Provide the initials and the last name of the author.When citing
an email or letter, provide the date the communication was sent. When citing
an interview, provide the date the interview occurred:

R. N. Valesquez (letter to author, November 17, 2000) noted misapplication
as the source of poor product results.

B. O’Connor (personal interview, March 3, 2001) indicated that an environmental
task force is being established to evaluate the most pressing problems and
strategies for addressing them.


Recoverable electronic sources

When citing recoverable electronic sources in text (that is, those sources
that have an Internet address), use the author-date method described above.
Also, when quoting or paraphrasing source material from an Internet source,
include either the paragraph number or "n.p." (for no page) directly
following the quote or paraphrase:

Wigand and Benjamin (1995) predict "an evolution from manufacturer-controlled
value chains to electronic markets" (n.p.).


 


© 2004 The Write Place

LEO: Literacy Education Online

This handout was written by Judith for the Write Place, St. Cloud
State University, St. Cloud, MN, using the Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association
; it may be copied for educational purposes
only. If you copy this document, please include our copyright notice and the
name of the writer; if you revise it, please add your name to the list of writers.

URL: http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/apaintext.html

Updated: 6 March 2004