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A Brief History of the Septuagint


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Septuagint

biblical literature
Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
See Article History

Alternative Title:
LXX

Septuagint, abbreviation LXX, the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew. The Septuagint was presumably made for the Jewish community in Egypt when Greek was the common language throughout the region. Analysis of the language has established that the Torah , or Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament), was translated near the middle of the 3rd century bce and that the rest of the Old Testament was translated in the 2nd century bce.

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Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, c. 1450–55.

biblical literature: Sources of the Septuagint

A Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible—known as the Septuagint and designated LXX because there allegedly were 70 or 72 translators, six from each of the 12 tribes of Israel—is a composite of the work of many translators labouring for well over a hundred…

The name Septuagint (from the Latin septuaginta, “70”) was derived later from the legend that there were 72 translators, 6 from each of the 12 tribes of Israel , who worked independently to translate the whole and ultimately produced identical versions. Another legend holds that the translators were sent to Alexandria by Eleazar, the chief priest at Jerusalem, at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 bce), though its source, the Letter of Aristeas, is unreliable. Despite the tradition that it was perfectly translated, there are large differences in style and usage between the Septuagint’s translation of the Torah and its translations of the later books in the Old Testament. In the 3rd century ce Origen attempted to clear up copyists’ errors that had crept into the text of the Septuagint, which by then varied widely from copy to copy, and a number of other scholars consulted the Hebrew texts in order to make the Septuagint more accurate.

Given that the language of much of the early Christian church was Greek, many early Christians relied on the Septuagint to locate the prophecies they claimed were fulfilled by Christ . Jews considered this a misuse of Holy Scripture and stopped using the Septuagint altogether; its subsequent history lies within the Christian church. The Greek text, not the original Hebrew, was the main basis for the Old Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Georgian, Slavonic, and part of the Arabic translations of the Old Testament and has never ceased to be the standard version of the Old Testament in the Greek church. Indeed, St. Jerome used the Septuagint to begin his translation of the Vulgate Old Testament in 382 ce.

In addition to all the books of the Hebrew canon , the Septuagint under Christian auspices separated the minor prophets and some other books and added the extra books known to Protestants and Jews as apocryphal and to Roman Catholics as deuterocanonical. The Hebrew canon has three divisions: the Torah (Law), the Neviʾim (Prophets), and the Ketuvim (Writings). The Septuagint has four: law, history, poetry, and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. This division has continued in the Western church in most modern Bible translations, except that in Protestant versions the Apocrypha are either omitted or grouped separately.

The text of the Septuagint is contained in a few early, but not necessarily reliable, manuscripts. The best known of these are the Codex Vaticanus (B) and the Codex Sinaiticus (S), both dating from the 4th century ce, and the Codex Alexandrinus (A) from the 5th century. There are also numerous earlier papyrus fragments and many later manuscripts. The first printed copy of the Septuagint was in the Complutensian Polyglot (1514–22).

Codex Sinaiticus
Codex SinaiticusCodex Sinaiticus, a 4th-century manuscript of the Septuagint, written between 330 and 350.www.BibleLandPictures.com/Alamy

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:

  • Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, c. 1450–55.

    biblical literature: Sources of the Septuagint
    A Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible—known as the Septuagint and designated LXX because there allegedly were 70 or 72 translators, six from each of the 12 tribes of Israel—is a composite of the work of many translators labouring for well over a hundred…
  • Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, c. 1450–55.

    biblical literature: The King James (Authorized) Version
    Not since the Septuagint had a translation of the Bible been undertaken under royal sponsorship as a cooperative venture on so grandiose a scale. An elaborate set of rules was contrived to curb individual proclivities and to ensure its scholarly and nonpartisan character. In contrast to earlier practice,…
  • Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, c. 1450–55.

    biblical literature: Samuel: Israel under Samuel and Saul
    …books first appeared in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament from the 3rd to 2nd centuries bce.…
  • Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, c. 1450–55.

    biblical literature: Overview
    …to the translation of the Bible into Greek. The process began with the Torah about the middle of the 3rd century bce and continued for several centuries. In the Greek canon, as it finally emerged, the Ketuvim was eliminated as a corpus, and the books were redistributed, together with those…
  • Two-page spread from Johannes Gutenberg's 42-line Bible, c. 1450–55.

    biblical literature: Textual criticism
    apocryphal books (the Septuagint); and (4) manuscripts of the Syriac (Peshitta) and Latin (Vulgate) versions, both of which were based directly on the Hebrew. Since 1947 the discovery of Hebrew biblical texts at Qumrān (then Jordan) and other places west of the Dead Sea has made it possible…

More About Septuagint

17 references found in Britannica articles

Assorted References

    • major reference
      • In biblical literature: Sources of the Septuagint
      • In biblical literature: The King James (Authorized) Version
    • analysis of Frankel
      • In Zacharias Frankel
    • basis of Christian canon
      • In Christianity: The problem of scriptural authority
    • development of chronology
      • In chronology: Jewish
    • division of books of Samuel
      • In biblical literature: Samuel: Israel under Samuel and Saul
    • example of apocrypha
      • In apocrypha
    • exegesis
      • In exegesis
    • exegetical works of Origen
      • In Origen: Writings
    • history of biblical translation
      • In biblical translation

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    Septuagint

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    This article is about the Greek Bible translation. For the number, see 70 (number) . For the moth, see Septuaginta zagulajevi . For other uses, see Septuagint (disambiguation) .
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    Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton’s Greek edition and English translation .

    The Septuagint (from the Latin : septuāgintā literally “seventy”, often abbreviated as or LXX and sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew . [1] It is estimated that the first five books of the Old Testament, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. [2] Considered the primary Greek translation of the Old Testament, it is quoted a number of times in the New Testament , [3] [4] particularly in the Pauline epistles , [5] by the Apostolic Fathers , and later by the Greek Church Fathers .

    The Greek translation was in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were fluent in Greek, the common language in Egypt at the time, but not in Hebrew. [6] [7] Separated from the Hebrew canon in Rabbinic Judaism , translations of the Torah into Greek by early Jewish scribes have survived as rare fragments only.

    The full title in Ancient Greek : Ἡ τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα μετάφρασις, literally “The Translation of the Seventy”, derives from the traditional story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Septuagint was translated at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus by 70 or 72 Jewish scholars (6 from each of the 12 tribes of Israel) who independently translated identical versions of the entire Hebrew canon. [8] [9] [10]

    The Septuagint should not be confused with other Greek versions of the Old Testament, [9] most of which did not survive except as fragments (some parts of these being known from Origen ‘s Hexapla , a comparison of six translations in adjacent columns, now almost wholly lost). Of these, the most important are those by Aquila , Symmachus , and Theodotion .

    Modern critical editions of the Septuagint are based on the Codices Vaticanus , Sinaiticus , and Alexandrinus .

    Contents

    • 1 Name
    • 2 Composition
      • 2.1 Jewish legend
      • 2.2 History
      • 2.3 Language
      • 2.4 Disputes over canonicity
      • 2.5 Final form
        • 2.5.1 Incorporations from Theodotion
    • 3 Use
      • 3.1 Jewish use
      • 3.2 Christian use
    • 4 Textual history
      • 4.1 Table of books
      • 4.2 Textual analysis
        • 4.2.1 Manuscripts
        • 4.2.2 Differences with the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic text
        • 4.2.3 Dead Sea Scrolls
      • 4.3 Printed editions
      • 4.4 English translations
    • 5 Promotion
    • 6 See also
    • 7 Notes
    • 8 References
    • 9 Further reading
    • 10 External links
      • 10.1 General
      • 10.2 Texts and translations
      • 10.3 The LXX and the NT

    Name[ edit ]

    The Septuagint derives its name from the Latin versio septuaginta interpretum, “translation of the seventy interpreters”, Greek: ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν ἑβδομήκοντα, hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, “translation of the seventy”. [11] However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo (354–430 CE) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta. [12] The Roman numeral LXX (seventy) is commonly used as an abbreviation, also






    G




    \displaystyle \mathfrak G

    [13] or G.

    Composition[ edit ]

    Jewish legend[ edit ]

    Beginning of the Letter of Aristeas to Philocrates. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 11th century.

    Seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek, for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria . [14]

    This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, [15] and is repeated by Philo of Alexandria , Josephus [16] [17]
    and by various later sources, including St. Augustine . [18]
    The story is also found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud :

    King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. He entered each one’s room and said: “Write for me the Torah of Moshe , your teacher”. God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically as all the others did. [10]

    Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, [19] says that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel .

    History[ edit ]

    The date of the 3rd century BCE is supported (for the Torah translation) by a number of factors, including the Greek being representative of early Koine, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, and early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century. [20] [21]

    After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice, into different versions, and then revised. [22] The quality and style of the different translators also varied considerably from book to book, from the literal to paraphrasing to interpretative.

    The translation process of the Septuagint itself and from the Septuagint into other versions can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity . The translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE, [23] [24] [25] initially in Alexandria , but in time elsewhere as well. [11] The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin , Slavonic , Syriac , Old Armenian , Old Georgian and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament . [26]

    Language[ edit ]

    The Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections of the Septuagint may show Semiticisms , or idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic . [27] Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs , show Greek influence more strongly. [14] Jewish Koine Greek exists primarily as a category of literature, or cultural category, but apart from some distinctive religious vocabulary is not so distinct from other varieties of Koine Greek as to be counted a separate dialect.

    The Septuagint may also elucidate pronunciation of pre- Masoretic Hebrew : many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the LXX, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. [28] However, it is extremely unlikely that all ancient Hebrew sounds had precise Greek equivalents. [29]

    Disputes over canonicity[ edit ]

    As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew bible, also called Tanakh, has three divisions: the Torah (Law), the Neviʾim (Prophets), and the Ketuvim (Writings). The Septuagint has four: law, history, poetry, and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. [30]

    The Torah ( Pentateuch in Greek) always maintained its preeminence as the basis of the canon; it is not known when the Ketuvim (“writings”), the final part of the Tanakh, were established, although some sort of selection process must have been utilised, because the Septuagint did not include other well-known Jewish documents such as Enoch or Jubilees , or other writings that do not form part of the Jewish canon and which are now classified as pseudepigrapha .

    However, the Psalms of Solomon , 3 Maccabees , 4 Maccabees , the Epistle of Jeremiah , the Book of Odes , the Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151 are included in some copies of the Septuagint, [31] some of which are accepted as canonical by Eastern Orthodox and some other churches. (The differences can be seen here. )

    The Septuagint includes books called anagignoskomena in Greek, known in English as deuterocanon (“second canon”) because they are not included in the Jewish canon . Among these are the first two books of Maccabees , Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Baruch (including the Letter of Jeremiah), additions to Esther and additions to Daniel, all these books are considered by the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church as canonical books, for Protestantism are Apocrypha. The Septuagint version of some Biblical books, like Daniel and Esther , are longer than those in the Masoretic Text . [32] The Septuagint text of the Book of Jeremiah is shorter than the Masoretic text. [33]

    Since Late Antiquity , once attributed to a Council of Jamnia , mainstream rabbinic Judaism rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scriptural texts. Several reasons have been given for this. First, some mistranslations were ascertained. [34] Second, the Hebrew source texts, in some cases (particularly the Book of Daniel), used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretic tradition of Hebrew texts, which was affirmed as canonical by the Jewish rabbis.
    Third, the rabbis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the newly emerging tradition of Christianity. [25] [35]
    Finally, the rabbis claimed for the Hebrew language a divine authority, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek—even though these languages were the lingua franca of Jews during this period. [36] As a result of this teaching, translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only.

    In time the Septuagint became synonymous with the “Greek Old Testament”, i.e. a Christian canon of writings which incorporated all the books of the Hebrew canon, along with additional texts. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches include most of the books that are in the Septuagint in their canons. Protestant churches, however, usually do not. After the Protestant Reformation , many Protestant Bibles began to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called ” Apocrypha ” (originally meaning “hidden” but became synonymous with “of questionable authenticity”), with some arguing against them being classed as Scripture. [37] [38] [39] [ full citation needed ] The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible, the basis for the Revised Standard Version . [40]

    Deuterocanonical and Apocryphal books included in the Septuagint

    Greek name [11] [41] [42] TransliterationEnglish name
    Deuterocanonical Books
    Τωβίτ [43] Tōbit [44] Tobit or Tobias
    ἸουδίθIoudithJudith
    ἘσθήρEsthērEsther with additions
    Μακκαβαίων Αʹ 1 Makkabaiōn 1 Maccabees
    Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Makkabaiōn 2 Maccabees
    Σοφία ΣαλoμῶντοςSophia SalomōniosWisdom or Wisdom of Solomon
    Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Sophia Iēsou Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus
    ΒαρούχBarouchBaruch
    Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Epistolē Ieremiou Letter of Jeremiah
    ΔανιήλDaniēlDaniel with additions
    Apocryphal Books
    Ἔσδρας Αʹ 1 Esdras 1 Esdras
    Μακκαβαίων Γʹ 3 Makkabaiōn 3 Maccabees
    Μακκαβαίων Δ’ Παράρτημα 4 Makkabaiōn 4 Maccabees [45]
    Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹPsalmos 151 Psalm 151
    Προσευχὴ ΜανασσῆProseuchē Manassē Prayer of Manasseh
    Ψαλμοί ΣαλoμῶντοςPsalmoi Salomōnios Psalms of Solomon [46]

    Final form[ edit ]

    See also: § Table of books

    All the books of western biblical canons of the Old Testament are found in the Septuagint, although the order does not always coincide with the Western ordering of the books. The Septuagint order for the Old Testament is evident in the earliest Christian Bibles (4th century). [14]

    Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic Text are grouped together. For example, the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are in the Septuagint one book in four parts called Βασιλειῶν (“Of Reigns”). In the Septuagint the Books of Chronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Paraleipoménon (Παραλειπομένων— (of) things left out). The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve. [14]

    Some scriptures of ancient origin are found in the Septuagint but are not present in the Hebrew Bible. These additional books are Tobit , Judith , Wisdom of Solomon , Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach , Baruch , Letter of Jeremiah (which later became chapter 6 of Baruch in the Vulgate ), additions to Daniel ( The Prayer of Azarias , the Song of the Three Children , Susanna and Bel and the Dragon ), additions to Esther , 1 Maccabees , 2 Maccabees , 3 Maccabees , 4 Maccabees , 1 Esdras , Odes , including the Prayer of Manasseh , the Psalms of Solomon , and Psalm 151 .

    Despite this, there are fragments of some deuterocanonical books that have been found in Hebrew among the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran :

    Sirach , whose text in Hebrew was already known from the Cairo Geniza , has been found in two scrolls (2QSir or 2Q18, 11QPs_a or 11Q5) in Hebrew. Another Hebrew scroll of Sirach has been found in Masada (MasSir). [47] :597 Five fragments from the Book of Tobit have been found in Qumran written in Aramaic and in one written in Hebrew (papyri 4Q, nos. 196-200). [47] [48] :636 Psalm 151 appears along with a number of canonical and non-canonical psalms in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a) (named also 11Q5), a first-century CE scroll discovered in 1956. [49] This scroll contains two short Hebrew psalms which scholars now agree served as the basis for Psalm 151. [50]

    The canonical acceptance of these books varies among different Christian traditions. For more information regarding these books, see the articles Biblical apocrypha , Biblical canon , Books of the Bible , and Deuterocanonical books .

    Incorporations from Theodotion[ edit ]

    In the most ancient copies of the Bible which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel is not the original Septuagint version, but instead is a copy of Theodotion ‘s translation from the Hebrew, which more closely resembles the Masoretic text. The Septuagint version was discarded in favor of Theodotion’s version in the 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, this happened near the end of the 2nd century, and in Latin-speaking areas (at least in North Africa), it occurred in the middle of the 3rd century. History does not record the reason for this, and St. Jerome reports, in the preface to the Vulgate version of Daniel, This thing ‘just’ happened. [51] Several Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel have been rediscovered recently and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book. [14]

    The canonical Ezra-Nehemiah is known in the Septuagint as “Esdras B”, and 1 Esdras is “Esdras A”. 1 Esdras is a very similar text to the books of Ezra-Nehemiah, and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derived from the same original text. It has been proposed, and is thought highly likely by scholars, that “Esdras B”—the canonical Ezra-Nehemiah—is Theodotion’s version of this material, and “Esdras A” is the version which was previously in the Septuagint on its own. [51]

    Use[ edit ]

    Jewish use[ edit ]

    See also: Development of the Hebrew Bible canon

    Pre-Christian Jews Philo and Josephus considered the Septuagint on equal standing with the Hebrew text. [14] [52] Manuscripts of the Septuagint have been found among the Qumran Scrolls in the Dead Sea, and were thought to have been in use among Jews at the time.

    Starting approximately in the 2nd century CE, several factors led most Jews to abandon use of the Septuagint. The earliest gentile Christians of necessity used the Septuagint, as it was at the time the only Greek version of the Bible, and most, if not all, of these early non- Jewish Christians could not read Hebrew. The association of the Septuagint with a rival religion may have rendered it suspect in the eyes of the newer generation of Jews and Jewish scholars. [26] Instead, Jews used Hebrew/Aramaic Targum manuscripts later compiled by the Masoretes and authoritative Aramaic translations, such as those of Onkelos and Rabbi Yonathan ben Uziel . [53]

    What was perhaps most significant for the Septuagint, as distinct from other Greek versions, was that the Septuagint began to lose Jewish sanction after[ when? ] differences between it and contemporary Hebrew scriptures were discovered (see Disputes over canonicity ). Even Greek-speaking Jews tended less to the Septuagint, preferring other Jewish versions in Greek, such as that of the 2nd-century Aquila translation, which seemed to be more concordant with contemporary Hebrew texts. [26]

    Christian use[ edit ]

    See also: Development of the Old Testament canon

    The Early Christian Church used the Greek texts [54] since Greek was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire at the time, and the language of the Greco-Roman Church ( Aramaic was the language of Syriac Christianity ).

    The relationship between the apostolic use of the Old Testament , for example, the Septuagint and the now lost Hebrew texts (though to some degree and in some form carried on in Masoretic tradition) is complicated. The Septuagint seems to have been a major source for the Apostles , but it is not the only one. St. Jerome offered, for example, Matt 2:15 and 2:23, John 19:37, John 7:38, 1 Cor. 2:9. [55] as examples not found in the Septuagint, but in Hebrew texts. (Matt 2:23 is not present in current Masoretic tradition either, though according to St. Jerome it was in Hosea 11:1.) The New Testament writers, when citing the Jewish scriptures, or when quoting Jesus doing so, freely used the Greek translation, implying that Jesus, his Apostles and their followers considered it reliable. [5] [27] [56]

    In the Early Christian Church , the presumption that the Septuagint was translated by Jews before the era of Christ, and that the Septuagint at certain places gives itself more to a christological interpretation than 2nd-century Hebrew texts was taken as evidence that “Jews” had changed the Hebrew text in a way that made them less christological. For example, Irenaeus concerning Isaiah 7:14 : The Septuagint clearly writes of a virgin (Greek παρθένος, bethulah in Hebrew) that shall conceive., [57] while the word almah in the Hebrew text was, according to Irenaeus, at that time interpreted by Theodotion and Aquila (both proselytes of the Jewish faith) as a young woman that shall conceive. According to Irenaeus, the Ebionites used this to claim that Joseph was the (biological) father of Jesus. From Irenaeus’ point of view that was pure heresy, facilitated by (late) anti-Christian alterations of the scripture in Hebrew, as evident by the older, pre-Christian, Septuagint. [58]

    When Jerome undertook the revision of the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint, he checked the Septuagint against the Hebrew texts that were then available. He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament of his Vulgate from Hebrew rather than Greek. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine , his contemporary; [59] a flood of still less moderate criticism came from those who regarded Jerome as a forger. While on the one hand he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint on both philological and theological grounds, on the other, in the context of accusations of heresy against him, Jerome would acknowledge the Septuagint texts as well. [60] With the passage of time, acceptance of Jerome’s version gradually increased until it displaced the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint. [26]

    The Eastern Orthodox Church still prefers to use the Septuagint as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages. The Eastern Orthodox also use Septuagint untranslated where Greek is the liturgical language, e.g. in the Orthodox Church of Constantinople , the Church of Greece and the Cypriot Orthodox Church . Critical translations of the Old Testament , while using the Masoretic Text as their basis, consult the Septuagint as well as other versions in an attempt to reconstruct the meaning of the Hebrew text whenever the latter is unclear, undeniably corrupt, or ambiguous. [26] For example, the New Jerusalem Bible Foreword says, “Only when this (the Masoretic Text) presents insuperable difficulties have emendations or other versions, such as the … LXX, been used.” [61] The Translator’s Preface to the New International Version says: “The translators also consulted the more important early versions (including) the Septuagint … Readings from these versions were occasionally followed where the MT seemed doubtful …” [62]

    Textual history[ edit ]

    Table of books[ edit ]

    Greek name [11] [41] [a] TransliterationEnglish name
    Law
    ΓένεσιςGenesisGenesis
    ἜξοδοςExodosExodus
    ΛευϊτικόνLeuitikonLeviticus
    ἈριθμοίArithmoiNumbers
    ΔευτερονόμιονDeuteronomionDeuteronomy
    History
    Ἰησοῦς NαυῆIēsous NauēJoshua
    ΚριταίKritaiJudges
    ῬούθRouthRuth
    Βασιλειῶν Αʹ [b] 1 Basileiōn1 Samuel
    Βασιλειῶν Βʹ2 Basileiōn2 Samuel
    Βασιλειῶν Γʹ3 Basileiōn1 Kings
    Βασιλειῶν Δʹ4 Basileiōn2 Kings
    Παραλειπομένων ΑʹI Paraleipomenōn [c] I Chronicles
    Παραλειπομένων Βʹ2 ParaleipomenōnII Chronicles
    Ἔσδρας Αʹ 1 Esdras 1 Esdras
    Ἔσδρας Βʹ2 EsdrasEzra-Nehemiah
    Τωβίτ [d] Tōbit [e] Tobit or Tobias
    ἸουδίθIoudithJudith
    ἘσθήρEsthērEsther with additions
    Μακκαβαίων Αʹ 1 Makkabaiōn 1 Maccabees
    Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Makkabaiōn 2 Maccabees
    Μακκαβαίων Γʹ 3 Makkabaiōn 3 Maccabees
    Wisdom
    ΨαλμοίPsalmoiPsalms
    Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹPsalmos 151 Psalm 151
    Προσευχὴ ΜανασσῆProseuchē Manassē Prayer of Manasseh
    ἸώβIōbJob
    ΠαροιμίαιParoimiaiProverbs
    ἘκκλησιαστήςEkklēsiastēs Ecclesiastes
    Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Asma Asmatōn Song of Songs or Song of Solomon or Canticle of Canticles
    Σοφία ΣαλoμῶντοςSophia SalomōniosWisdom or Wisdom of Solomon
    Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Sophia Iēsou Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus
    Ψαλμοί ΣαλoμῶντοςPsalmoi Salomōnios Psalms of Solomon [63]
    Prophets
    ΔώδεκαDōdekaMinor Prophets
    Ὡσηέ ΑʹI. HōsēeHosea
    Ἀμώς ΒʹII. ĀmōsAmos
    Μιχαίας ΓʹIII. MichaiasMicah
    Ἰωήλ ΔʹIV. IōēlJoel
    Ὀβδιού Εʹ [f] V. ObdiouObadiah
    Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ’VI. IōnasJonah
    Ναούμ ΖʹVII. NaoumNahum
    Ἀμβακούμ ΗʹVIII. AmbakoumHabakkuk
    Σοφονίας ΘʹIX. SophoniasZephaniah
    Ἀγγαῖος ΙʹX. AngaiosHaggai
    Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹXI. ZachariasZachariah
    Μαλαχίας ΙΒʹXII. MalachiasMalachi
    ἨσαΐαςĒsaiasIsaiah
    ἹερεμίαςHieremiasJeremiah
    ΒαρούχBarouchBaruch
    ΘρῆνοιThrēnoiLamentations
    Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Epistolē Ieremiou Letter of Jeremiah
    ἸεζεκιήλIezekiēlEzekiel
    ΔανιήλDaniēlDaniel with additions
    Appendix
    Μακκαβαίων Δ’ Παράρτημα 4 Makkabaiōn 4 Maccabees [g]

    Textual analysis[ edit ]

    The inter-relationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament (some identified by their siglum). The Septuagint here denotes the original septuagint.

    Modern scholarship holds that the Septuagint was written during the 3rd through 1st centuries BCE. But nearly all attempts at dating specific books, with the exception of the Pentateuch (early- to mid-3rd century BCE), are tentative and without consensus. [14]

    Later Jewish revisions and recensions of the Greek against the Hebrew are well attested, the most famous of which include the Three: Aquila (128 CE), Symmachus , and Theodotion. These three, to varying degrees, are more literal renderings of their contemporary Hebrew scriptures as compared to the Old Greek (the original Septuagint). Modern scholars consider one or more of the ‘three’ to be totally new Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible. [64]

    Around 235 CE, Origen , a Christian scholar in Alexandria , completed the Hexapla , a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings (a.k.a. “editor’s marks”, “critical signs” or “Aristarchian signs”). Much of this work was lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns. Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint), which included readings from all the Greek versions into a critical apparatus with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στίχος) belonged. Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen’s combined text (“the fifth column”) was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the Septuagint was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the Septuagint, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome , who attributed these to Lucian (Lucianic or Antiochene recension) and Hesychius (Hesychian or Alexandrian recension). [14]

    Manuscripts[ edit ]

    Main article: Septuagint manuscripts

    The oldest manuscripts of the Septuagint include 2nd century BCE fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy (Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957), and 1st century BCE fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets ( Alfred Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943). Relatively complete manuscripts of the Septuagint postdate the Hexaplar recension and include the Codex Vaticanus from the 4th century CE and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century. These are indeed the oldest surviving nearly complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language; the oldest extant complete Hebrew texts date some 600 years later, from the first half of the 10th century. [26] [65] The 4th century Codex Sinaiticus also partially survives, still containing many texts of the Old Testament. [66] While there are differences between these three codices, scholarly consensus today holds that one Septuagint—that is, the original pre-Christian translation—underlies all three. The various Jewish and later Christian revisions and recensions are largely responsible for the divergence of the codices. [14] The Codex Marchalianus is another notable manuscript.

    Differences with the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic text[ edit ]

    The sources of the many differences between the Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic Text have long been discussed by scholars. Following the Renaissance , a common opinion among some humanists was that the Septuagint translators bungled the translation from the Hebrew and that the Septuagint became more corrupt with time. The most widely accepted view today is that the Septuagint provides a reasonably accurate record of an early Hebrew textual variant that differed from the ancestor of the Masoretic text as well as those of the Latin Vulgate, where both of the latter seem to have a more similar textual heritage. This view is supported by comparisons with Biblical texts found at the Essene settlement at Qumran (the Dead Sea Scrolls ).[ citation needed ]

    These issues notwithstanding, the text of the Septuagint is generally close to that of the Masoretes and Vulgate. For example, Genesis 4:1–6 is identical in both the Septuagint, Vulgate and the Masoretic Text. Likewise, Genesis 4:8 to the end of the chapter is the same. There is only one noticeable difference in that chapter, at 4:7, to wit:

    Genesis 4:7, LXX and English Translation ( NETS )
    Genesis 4:7, Masoretic and English Translation from MT ( Judaica Press )
    Genesis 4:7, Latin Vulgate and English Translation (Douay-Rheims)
    οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς, ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς, ἥμαρτες; ἡσύχασον· πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ.

    If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you not sinned? Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him.

    הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ:

    Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you? If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it.

    nonne si bene egeris, recipies : sin autem male, statim in foribus peccatum aderit? sed sub te erit appetitus ejus, et tu dominaberis illius.

    If thou do well, shalt thou not receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it.

    This instance illustrates the complexity of assessing differences between the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text as well as the Vulgate. Despite the striking divergence of meaning here between the Septuagint and later texts, nearly identical consonantal Hebrew source texts can be reconstructed. The readily apparent semantic differences result from alternative strategies for interpreting the difficult verse and relate to differences in vowelization and punctuation of the consonantal text.

    The differences between the Septuagint and the MT thus fall into four categories. [67]

    1. Different Hebrew sources for the MT and the LXX. Evidence of this can be found throughout the Old Testament. Most obvious are major differences in Jeremiah and Job, where the Septuagint is much shorter and chapters appear in different order than in the MT, and Esther where almost one third of the verses in the Septuagint text have no parallel in the MT. A more subtle example may be found in Isaiah 36.11; the meaning ultimately remains the same, but the choice of words evidences a different text. The MT reads “…al tedaber yehudit be-‘ozne ha`am al ha-homa” [speak not the Judean language in the ears of (or—which can be heard by) the people on the wall]. The same verse in the Septuagint reads according to the translation of Brenton “and speak not to us in the Jewish tongue: and wherefore speakest thou in the ears of the men on the wall.” The MT reads “people” where the Septuagint reads “men”. This difference is very minor and does not affect the meaning of the verse. Scholars at one time had used discrepancies such as this to claim that the Septuagint was a poor translation of the Hebrew original. With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, variant Hebrew texts of the Bible were found. In fact this verse is found in Qumran (1QIsaa) where the Hebrew word “haanashim” (the men) is found in place of “haam” (the people). This discovery, and others like it, showed that even seemingly minor differences of translation could be the result of variant Hebrew source texts.
    2. Differences in interpretation stemming from the same Hebrew text. A good example is Genesis 4.7, shown above.
    3. Differences as a result of idiomatic translation issues (i.e. a Hebrew idiom may not easily translate into Greek, thus some difference is intentionally or unintentionally imparted). For example, in Psalm 47:10 the MT reads “The shields of the earth belong to God”. The Septuagint reads “To God are the mighty ones of the earth.” The metaphor “shields” would not have made much sense to a Greek speaker; thus the words “mighty ones” are substituted in order to retain the original meaning.
    4. Transmission changes in Hebrew or Greek (Diverging revisionary/recensional changes and copyist errors)

    Dead Sea Scrolls[ edit ]

    The Biblical manuscripts found in Qumran , commonly known as the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS), have prompted comparisons of the various texts associated with the Hebrew Bible, including the Septuagint. [68] Peter Flint [69] cites Emanuel Tov, the chief editor of the scrolls, [70] who identifies five broad variation categories of DSS texts: [71]

    1. Proto-Masoretic: This consists of a stable text and numerous and distinctive agreements with the Masoretic Text. About 60% of the Biblical scrolls fall into this category (e.g. 1QIsa-b)
    2. Pre-Septuagint: These are the manuscripts which have distinctive affinities with the Greek Bible. These number only about 5% of the Biblical scrolls, for example, 4QDeut-q, 4QSam-a, and 4QJer-b, 4QJer-d. In addition to these manuscripts, several others share distinctive individual readings with the Septuagint, although they do not fall in this category.
    3. The Qumran “Living Bible”: These are the manuscripts which, according to Tov, were copied in accordance with the “Qumran practice” (i.e. with distinctive long orthography and morphology , frequent errors and corrections, and a free approach to the text. Such scrolls comprise about 20% of the Biblical corpus, including the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa-a):
    4. Pre-Samaritan: These are DSS manuscripts which reflect the textual form found in the Samaritan Pentateuch, although the Samaritan Bible itself is later and contains information not found in these earlier scrolls, (e.g. God’s holy mountain at Shechem rather than Jerusalem). The Qumran witnesses—which are characterized by orthographic corrections and harmonizations with parallel texts elsewhere in the Pentateuch—comprise about 5% of the Biblical scrolls. (e.g. 4QpaleoExod-m)
    5. Non-Aligned: This is a category which shows no consistent alignment with any of the other four text-types. These number approximately 10% of the Biblical scrolls, and include 4QDeut-b, 4QDeut-c, 4QDeut-h, 4QIsa-c, and 4QDan-a. [71] [72] [73]

    The textual sources present a variety of readings. For example, Bastiaan Van Elderen compares three variations of Deuteronomy 32:43, the Song of Moses . [70]

    Deuteronomy 32.43, Masoretic
    Deuteronomy 32.43, Qumran
    Deuteronomy 32.43, Septuagint
    1 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people
    2 For he will avenge the blood of his servants
    3 And will render vengeance to his adversaries
    4 And will purge his land, his people.
    1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him
    2 And worship him, all you divine ones
    3 For he will avenge the blood of his sons
    4 And he will render vengeance to his adversaries
    5 And he will recompense the ones hating him
    6 And he purges the land of his people.
    1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him
    2 And let all the sons of God worship him
    3 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people
    4 And let all the angels of God be strong in him
    5 Because he avenges the blood of his sons
    6 And he will avenge and recompense justice to his enemies
    7 And he will recompense the ones hating
    8 And the Lord will cleanse the land of his people.

    Printed editions[ edit ]

    The texts of all printed editions are derived from the three recensions mentioned above, that of Origen, Lucian, or Hesychius.

    • The editio princeps is the Complutensian Polyglot . It was based on manuscripts that are now lost and is one of the received texts used for the KJV like Textus Receptus, and seems to transmit quite early readings. [74]
    • Brian Walton Polyglot is one of the few versions that includes a Septuagint not based on the Egyptian Alexandria type text such as Vaticanus, Alexandrinus and Sinaiticus, but rather follows the vast majority which extremely agree like the Complutensian Polyglot.
    • The Aldine edition (begun by Aldus Manutius ) appeared at Venice in 1518. The text is closer to Codex Vaticanus than the Complutensian. The editor says he collated ancient manuscripts but does not specify them. It has been reprinted several times.
    • The Roman or Sixtine Septuagint , which uses Codex Vaticanus as the base texts and various other later manuscripts for the lacunae in the uncial manuscript. It was published in 1587 under the direction of Cardinal Antonio Carafa , with the help of a group of Roman scholars (Cardinal Gugliemo Sirleto , Antonio Agelli and Petrus Morinus ), by the authority of Sixtus V, to assist the revisers who were preparing the Latin Vulgate edition ordered by the Council of Trent. It has become the textus receptus of the Greek Old Testament and has had many new editions, such as that of Robert Holmes and James Parsons (Oxford, 1798–1827), the seven editions of Constantin von Tischendorf , which appeared at Leipzig between 1850 and 1887, the last two, published after the death of the author and revised by Nestle, the four editions of Henry Barclay Swete (Cambridge, 1887–95, 1901, 1909), etc. A detailed description of this edition has been made by H. B. Swete in his An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (1900), pp. 174–182.
    • Grabe’s edition was published at Oxford, from 1707 to 1720, and reproduced, but imperfectly, the Codex Alexandrinus of London. For partial editions, see Fulcran Vigouroux , Dictionnaire de la Bible, 1643 sqq.
    • Alfred Rahlfs , a longtime Septuagint researcher at the University of Göttingen , began a manual edition of the Septuagint in 1917 or 1918. The completed Septuaginta was published in 1935. It relies mainly on Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, and Alexandrinus, and presents a critical apparatus with variants from these and several other sources. [75]
    • The Göttingen Septuagint (Vetus Testamentum Graecum: Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum) is a major critical version, comprising multiple volumes published from 1931 to 2009 and not yet complete (the largest missing parts are the history books Joshua through Chronicles except Ruth, and the Solomonic books Proverbs through Song of Songs). Its two critical apparatuses present variant Septuagint readings and variants from other Greek versions. [76]
    • In 2006, a revision of Alfred Rahlfs’s Septuaginta was published by the German Bible Society . This editio altera includes over a thousand changes to the text and apparatus. [77]
    • Apostolic Bible Polyglot contains a Septuagint text derived mainly from the agreement of any two of the Complutensian Polyglot , the Sixtine, and the Aldine texts. [78]

    English translations[ edit ]

    The Septuagint has been translated not surprisingly only a few times into English.

    The first one, which excluded the Apocrypha, was Charles Thomson’s in 1808 , which was subsequently revised and enlarged by C.A. Muses in 1954 and published by The Falcon’s Wing Press. Many complain how C.A. Muses has ‘corrupted the translation to match the Hebrew’[ who? ] in about 40% of it.

    The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English , translated by Sir Lancelot Brenton 1854 and available as a re-print by Hendrickson Publishers. It is a long-time standard and the one to use. For most of the years since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. It is based primarily upon the Codex Vaticanus and contains the Greek and English texts in parallel columns. It is very important to read the average of four footnoted Actual transliterated words per page abreviated by “Alex.” and “GK.” Considering the dated English of Brenton’s translation, there is also a revision of the Brenton Septuagint available through Stauros Ministries, called The Complete Apostles’ Bible, translated by Paul W. Esposito, Th.D, and released in 2007 Be aware that it uses the Masoretic Text in the 23rd Psalm, therefore possibly other places. [2]

    A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title (NETS), an academic translation based on the NRSV (which is Masoretic Text) was published by the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS). It was published by Oxford University Press in October 2007. It used New Revised Standard version (which is based on the Hebrew Masoretic Text) as the base text.

    The Apostolic Bible Polyglot , published in 2003 is not a translation per se, but actually a Greek- English Interlinear Septuagint useful in conjunction with the re-print of Brenton’s translation. It includes the Greek books of the Hebrew canon, (that is, it is lacking the books called Apocrypha), along with the Greek New Testament, all numerically coded to the AB-Strong numbering system, and set in monotonic orthography. Included in the printed edition is a concordance and index.

    The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources: first the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851, and, second, Thomas Nelson Publishers granted use of the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the Septuagint would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version; and it includes, further, extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective. [79]

    Father Nicholas King, SJ has completed a Catholic translation of the Septuagint into English. The work is available in either four separate volumes or one single volume. Father King is a Jesuit priest who lectures in New Testament Studies at Oxford University. The translation began in 2010 and was finished in 2013; it is available from Kevin Mayhew Publishers, entitled The Old Testament (volumes 1 through 4), and The Bible in hardcover and presentation editions. [3] It contains a very useful mini commentary on each book which gives a flavour of what is hoped to be the start of accessible, reasonably priced individual commentaries for the general reader.

    Brenton’s Septuagint, Restored Names Version, (SRNV) is a two volume editing primarily based on Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton’s translation. The Hebrew Names restoration is based on the Westminster Leningrad Codex with the prime focus being the restoration of the Divine Name. It is rendered in Modern English yet remains faithful to Brenton’s translation. Additionally it features extensive Hebrew and Greek footnotes. [4]

    The Eastern Orthodox Bible (EOB) (in progress) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton’s translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus . Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.

    Promotion[ edit ]

    In 2006 the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies ( IOSCS ) – a non-profit, learned society formed to promote international research in and study of the Septuagint and related texts [80] – declared February 8 “International Septuagint Day”, [81]
    a day to promote the discipline on campuses and in communities. [81] The Organization also publishes the “Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies” ( JSCS ).

    See also[ edit ]

    • Bible portal
    • Book of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts
    • Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint
    • Dead Sea Scrolls –some of the Dead Sea Scrolls are witnesses to the LXX text.
    • Documentary hypothesis –discusses the theoretical recensional history of the Torah/Pentateuch in Hebrew.
    • La Bible d’Alexandrie

    Notes[ edit ]

    1. ^ The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.
    2. ^ Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεία (Basileia).
    3. ^ That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.
    4. ^ also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.
    5. ^ or Tōbeit or Tōbith
    6. ^ Obdiou is genitive from “The vision of Obdias”, which opens the book.
    7. ^ Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon

    References[ edit ]

    1. ^ “Septuagint” . Merriam-Webster. Retrieved April 7, 2018.

    2. ^ “Septuagint” . Encyclopedia Britannica. June 15, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
    3. ^ Nicole, Roger – New Testament Use of the Old Testament Revelation and the Bible, ed. Carl. F.H. Henry (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1958), pp. 137-151. The frequent use of the LXX, it must also be noted, did not impose upon the New Testament authors the obligation to quote always in accordance with this version.
    4. ^ “The quotations from the Old Testament found in the New are in the main taken from the Septuagint; and even where the citation is indirect the influence of this version is clearly seen.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    5. ^ a b “His quotations from Scripture, which are all taken, directly or from memory, from the Greek version, betray no familiarity with the original Hebrew text (…) Nor is there any indication in Paul’s writings or arguments that he had received the rabbinical training ascribed to him by Christian writers (…)” “Paul, the Apostle of the Heathen” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    6. ^ “[T]he Egyptian papyri, which are abundant for this particular period, … have in a measure reinstated Aristeas (about 200 B.C.[E.]) in the opinion of scholars. Upon his “Letter to Philocrates” the tradition as to the origin of the Septuagint rests. It is now believed that even though he may have been mistaken in some points, his facts in general are worthy of credence (Abrahams, in “Jew. Quart. Rev.” xiv. 321). According to Aristeas, the Pentateuch was translated at the time of Philadelphus, the second Ptolemy (285–247 B.C.[E.]), which translation was encouraged by the king and welcomed by the Jews of Alexandria. Grätz (“Gesch. der Juden”, 3d ed., iii. 615) stands alone in assigning it to the reign of Philometor (181–146 B.C.[E.]). Whatever share the king may have had in the work, it evidently satisfied a pressing need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was rapidly waning before the demands of every-day life.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
    7. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Hellenism: Range of Hellenic Influence : “Except in Egypt, Hellenic influence was nowhere stronger than on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Greek cities arose there in continuation, or in place, of the older Semitic foundations, and gradually changed the aspect of the country.”
    8. ^ “Septuagint” . Dictionary.com. Random House, Inc. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
    9. ^ a b “[T]he Pentateuch was translated at the time of Philadelphus, the second Ptolemy (285–247 B.C.[E.])” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
    10. ^ a b Tractate Megillah , pages 9a-9b. The Talmud identifies fifteen specific unusual translations made by the scholars.
    11. ^ a b c d Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint . Paternoster Press . ISBN   1-84227-061-3 .
    12. ^ Sundberg, in McDonald & Sanders, eds., The Canon Debate, p.72. See Augustine, The City of God, 18.42, where Augustine says that “this name [“Septuaginta”] has now become traditional”, indicating that this was a recent event. But Augustine offers no clue as to which of the possible antecedents led to this development.
    13. ^ Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia , for instance.
    14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.
    15. ^ Davila, J (2008). “Aristeas to Philocrates” . Summary of lecture by Davila, February 11, 1999. University of St. Andrews, School of Divinity. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
    16. ^ Flavius Josephus . Antiquities of the Jews .
    17. ^ William Whiston (1998). The Complete Works of Josephus . T. Nelson Publishers . ISBN   0-7852-1426-7 .
    18. ^ Augustine of Hippo, The City of God 18.42.
    19. ^ “(..) Philo bases his citations from the Bible on the Septuagint version, though he has no scruple about modifying them or citing them with much freedom. Josephus follows this translation closely.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    20. ^ J.A.L. Lee, A Lexical Study of the Septuagint Version of the Pentateuch (Septuagint and Cognate Studies, 14. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983; Reprint SBL, 2006)
    21. ^ “The Septuagint” . google.ru.
    22. ^ Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint
    23. ^ Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004) , Anchor Bible Reference Library, Alan F. Segal , p.363
    24. ^ Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p.111
    25. ^ a b “[…] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang […] [von den] Rabbinern zuerst gerühmt (..) Später jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistische Irrlehren abgaben, lehnte man die Septuaginta ab.” Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, Tovia Ben Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff
    26. ^ a b c d e f Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 1995.
    27. ^ a b H. B. Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, revised by R.R. Ottley, 1914; reprint, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1989.
    28. ^ Hoffman, Book Review , 2004. Archived January 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine .
    29. ^ Paul Joüon, SJ, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, trans. and revised by T. Muraoka, vol. I, Rome: Editrice Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 2000.
    30. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica: Septuagint . Retrieved 14 September 2018.
    31. ^ “The Old Testament Canon and Apocrypha” . BibleResearcher. Retrieved 27 November 2015.[ better source needed ]
    32. ^ Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, ” Books of the Septuagint “, (Accessed 2006.9.5).
    33. ^ Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1996). A history of prophecy in Israel . Westminster John Knox Press. p. 130. ISBN   9780664256395 .
    34. ^ “The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    35. ^ “Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic ) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] […] In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible […] It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    36. ^ Mishnah Sotah (7:2–4 and 8:1), among many others, discusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaic or Greek. This is comparable to the authority claimed for the original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching.
    37. ^ Blocher, Henri (2004). “Helpful or Harmful? The “Apocrypha” and Evangelical Theology”. European Journal of Theology (13.2): 81–90.
    38. ^ Webster, William. “The Old Testament Canon and the Apocrypha Part 3” . Retrieved 29 November 2015.
    39. ^ Shamoun, Sam. “Are The Jewish Apocrypha Inspired Scripture? Pt. 4” . Answering Islam – A Christian-Muslim dialog. Answering Islam. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
    40. ^ “NETS: Electronic Edition” . Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
    41. ^ a b Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN   0-8028-6091-5 .—The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX.
    42. ^ The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.
    43. ^ also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.
    44. ^ or Tōbeit or Tōbith
    45. ^ Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon
    46. ^ Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/
    47. ^ a b Abegg, Martin; Flint, Peter; Ulrich, Eugene (1999). The Dead Sea Scroll Bible. HarperOne. ISBN   978-0-06-060064-8 .
    48. ^ http://www.deadseascrolls.org.il/explore-the-archive/search#q=composition_type_parent_en:’Apocrypha’ AND manuscript_type_parent_en:’Non-Biblical Compositions’
    49. ^ Sanders, JA (1963), “Ps. 151 in 11QPss”, Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 75: 73–86, doi : 10.1515/zatw.1963.75.1.73 , and slightly revised in Sanders, JA (ed.), “The Psalms Scroll of Qumrân Cave 11 (11QPsa)”, DJD, 4: 54–64.
    50. ^ Abegg, Martin Jr; Flint, Peter; Ulrich, Eugene (1999), The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, HarperCollins, pp. 585–86, ISBN   0-06-060064-0 .
    51. ^ a b This article incorporates text from the 1903 Encyclopaedia Biblica  article “TEXT AND VERSIONS” , a publication now in the public domain .
    52. ^ Alexander Zvielli, Jerusalem Post, June 2009, pp. 37
    53. ^ Greek-speaking Judaism (see also Hellenistic Judaism ), survived, however, on a smaller scale into the medieval period. Cf. Natalio Fernández Marcos, The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Bible, Leiden: Brill, 2000.
    54. ^ “The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in places from the text crystallized by the Masorah (..) Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterward called the Masoretic ) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. This distrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] (..) In course of time it came to be the canonical Greek Bible (..) It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church.” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    55. ^ St. Jerome, Apology Book II.
    56. ^ “The quotations from the Old Testament found in the New are in the main taken from the Septuagint; and even where the citation is indirect the influence of this version is clearly seen (..)” “Bible Translations – The Septuagint” . JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
    57. ^ Paulkovich, Michael (2012), No Meek Messiah, Spillix Publishing, p. 24, ISBN   0988216116
    58. ^ Irenaeus, Against Herecies Book III.
    59. ^ Jerome, From Jerome, Letter LXXI (404 CE), NPNF1-01. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustin, with a Sketch of his Life and Work, Phillip Schaff, Ed.
    60. ^ Rebenich, S., Jerome (Routledge, 2013), p. 58. ISBN   9781134638444
    61. ^ New Jerusalem Bible Readers Edition, 1990: London, citing the Standard Edition of 1985
    62. ^ “Life Application Bible” (NIV), 1988: Tyndale House Publishers, using “Holy Bible” text, copyright International Bible Society 1973
    63. ^ Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the Septuagint. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/
    64. ^ Compare Dines, who is certain only of Symmachus being a truly new version, with Würthwein, who considers only Theodotion to be a revision, and even then possibly of an earlier non-LXX version.
    65. ^ Due to the practice of burying Torah scrolls invalidated for use by age, commonly after 300–400 years.
    66. ^ Würthwein, op. cit., pp. 73 & 198.
    67. ^ See, Jinbachian, Some Semantically Significant Differences Between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, [1] .
    68. ^ “Searching for the Better Text – Biblical Archaeology Society” . Bib-arch.org. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
    69. ^ Dr. Peter Flint. Curriculum Vitae. Trinity Western University. Langley, BC, Canada. Archived 2010-12-12 at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 26 March 2011.
    70. ^ a b Edwin Yamauchi, “Bastiaan Van Elderen, 1924– 2004”, SBL Forum Accessed 26 March 2011.
    71. ^ a b Tov, E. 2001. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2nd ed.) Assen/Maastricht: Van Gocum; Philadelphia: Fortress Press. As cited in Flint, Peter W. 2002. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls as presented in Bible and computer: the Stellenbosch AIBI-6 Conference: proceedings of the Association internationale Bible et informatique, “From alpha to byte”, University of Stellenbosch, 17–21 July, 2000 Association internationale Bible et informatique. Conference, Johann Cook (ed.) Leiden/Boston BRILL, 2002
    72. ^ Laurence Shiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 172
    73. ^ Note that these percentages are disputed. Other scholars credit the Proto-Masoretic texts with only 40%, and posit larger contributions from Qumran-style and non-aligned texts. The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 6: Questions of Canon through the Dead Sea Scrolls by James C. VanderKam, page 94, citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on biblical manuscripts: Qumran scribe type c.25%, proto-Masoretic Text c. 40%, pre-Samaritan texts c.5%, texts close to the Hebrew model for the Septuagint c.5% and nonaligned c.25%.
    74. ^ Joseph Ziegler, “Der griechische Dodekepropheton-Text der Complutenser Polyglotte”, Biblica 25:297–310, cited in Würthwein.
    75. ^ Rahlfs, A. (Ed.). (1935/1979). Septuaginta. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft .
    76. ^ “IOSCS: Critical Editions of Septuagint/Old Greek Texts” . upenn.edu.
    77. ^ “Septuaginta” .
    78. ^ “Introduction to the Apostolic Bible” (PDF). apostolicbible.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
    79. ^ “Conciliar Press” . Orthodox Study Bible. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
    80. ^ “IOSCS” . Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
    81. ^ a b
      “International Septuagint Day” . The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies. Retrieved 2016-03-30. In 2006, the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies established February 8 as International Septuagint Day, a day to celebrate the Septuagint and encourage its study.

    Further reading[ edit ]

    • Timothy Michael Law, When God Spoke Greek, Oxford University Press, 2013.
    • Eberhard Bons and Jan Joosten, eds. Septuagint Vocabulary: Pre-History, Usage, Reception (Society of Biblical Literature; 2011) 211 pages; studies of the language used
    • Kantor, Mattis, The Jewish time line encyclopedia: A yearby-year history from Creation to the present, Jason Aronson Inc., London, 1992
    • Alfred Rahlfs , Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments, für das Septuaginta-Unternehmen , Göttingen 1914.
    • Makrakis, Apostolos, Proofs of the Authenticity of the Septuagint, trans. by D. Cummings, Chicago, Ill.: Hellenic Christian Educational Society, 1947. N.B.: Published and printed with its own pagination, whether as issued separately or as included together with 2 other works of A. Makrakis in a single volume published by the same film in 1950, wherein the translator’s name is identified on the common t.p. to that volume.
    • W. Emery Barnes, On the Influence of Septuagint on the Peshitta , JTS 1901, pp. 186–197.
    • Andreas Juckel, Septuaginta and Peshitta Jacob of Edessa quoting the Old Testament in Ms BL Add 17134 JOURNAL OF SYRIAC STUDIES
    • Martin Hengel, The Septuagint As Christian Scripture , Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
    • Rajak, Tessa, Translation and survival: the Greek Bible of the ancient Jewish Diaspora (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
    • Bart D. Ehrman. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings; 608 pages, Oxford University Press (July, 2011); ISBN   978-0-19-975753-4
    • Hyam Maccoby. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity; 238 pages, Barnes & Noble Books (1998); ISBN   978-0-7607-0787-6

    External links[ edit ]

    Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article:

    The complete Greek text of the modern Septuagint

    General[ edit ]

    • The Septuagint Online – Comprehensive site with scholarly discussion and links to texts and translations
    • The Septuagint Institute
    • Jewish Encyclopedia (1906): Bible Translations
    • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913): Septuagint Version
    • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913): Versions of the Bible
    • Codex: Resources and Links Relating to the Septuagint
    • Extensive chronological and canonical list of Early Papyri and Manuscripts of the Septuagint
    • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). ” Septuagint “. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

    Texts and translations[ edit ]

    • The Tetrapla: interlinear Bible in four languages, for advanced researchers . archive.org (in Hebrew, Greek, Lithuanian, and English). p. 5519. Archived from the original on Sep 7, 2018.
    • The Old Testament, by Nicholas King, in four volumes. Kevin Mayhew Publishers. Analytical Translation of The Old Testament (Septuagint), by Gary F. Zeolla, 4 volumes with fifth and final volume on the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books to be published in 2015 by LuLu Publishers. A complete work with literal word for word translation.
    • Septuagint/Old Greek Texts and Translations LXX finder, listing dozens of editions, both print and digital, in various languages and formats. A good place to start.
    • Elpenor’s Bilingual (Greek / English) Septuagint Old Testament Greek text (full polytonic unicode version) and English translation side by side. Greek text as used by the Orthodox Churches.
    • Titus Text Collection: Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes (advanced research tool)
    • Septuagint published by the Church of Greece
    • Plain text of the whole LXX
    • Bible Resource Pages – contains Septuagint texts (with diacritics) side-by-side with English translations
    • The Septuagint in Greek as a Microsoft Word document. Introduction and book abbreviations in Latin. Non-free Antioch (Vusillus Old Face, Vusillus) TrueType font file required.
    • The New English Translation of the Septuagint (NETS), electronic edition
    • EOB: Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible: includes comprehensive introductory materials dealing with Septuagintal issues and an Old Testament which is an extensive revision of the Brenton with footnotes.
    • The Holy Orthodox Bible translated by Peter A. Papoutsis from the Septuagint (LXX) and the Official Greek New Testament text of the Ecumenical Patriarch.
    • LXX2012: Septuagint in American English 2012 – The Septuagint with Apocrypha, translated from Greek to English by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton and published in 1885, with some language updates by Michael Paul Johnson in 2012 (American English)

    The LXX and the NT[ edit ]

    • Septuagint references in NT by John Salza
    • An Apology for the Septuagint – by Edward William Grinfield
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