11 Signs You Have A Panic Disorder

 
Search

Create
Log in Sign up

Log in Sign up
We use cookies to simplify and improve your experience on our website. By using our website, you are agreeing to our cookie and privacy policies.

30 terms

CLGreatHouse

AnxietyDisorders

STUDY

>PLAY

Which of the following characterizes the mood-state known as anxiety?
apprehension about the future
People behave best when they are:
a little anxious
When people are anxious they:
know it is irrational, but can’t help it
Which of the following is not a basic type of panic attack?
situation inevitable
Research suggests that we inherit a tendency to be tense which is:
caused by multiple genes
Which type of panic attack is most closely related to phobias?
situationally bound
Physiological assessments of panic attacks recorded in the laboratory indicate an increase in all of the following EXCEPT:
a. heartbeat
b. finger temperature
c. muscle tension
d. stomach contractions <<<correct>>>>
Panic attacks tend to occur most often:
during deep sleep between 1:30 and 3:30 a.m.
Which of the following neurotransmitter systems is associated not only with anxiety, but also with depression?
corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system
According to recent research (Johnson et al., 2000), an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders was found among teenagers who:
smoked 20 or more cigarettes daily
Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
worry
Research studies have found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is particularly prevalent among:
the elderly
Research suggests that people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) worry:
without images but try to avoid the associated negative affect
Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by:
the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur
Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is:
deeply asleep
Which of the following is NOT an example of a situational phobia?
animal phobia
Which of the following is a correct match between "normal" childhood fears and the approximate age of onset?
age 10: evaluation by others, anxiety over physical appearance
In regard to treatment of specific phobias, which of the following statements is correct
Exposure-based exercises actually change brain functioning.
Which of the following is the most prevalent psychological disorder in the general population?
social phobia
The anxiety disorder called social phobia, involving anxiety about being evaluated or criticized, usually begins during:
adolescence
The setting for posttraumatic stress disorder to occur follows an experience accompanied by a triad of feelings, including all of the following EXCEPT:
a. horror
b. paranoia <<<<correct>>>>
c. helplessness
d. fear
Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display a characteristic set of symptoms including all of the following EXCEPT:
a. numbing of emotional responsiveness
b. sudden "flashbacks" in which the traumatic event is relived
c. decreased startle response and chronic under-arousal <<<<correct>>>>
d. memories and nightmares of the event
Veterans returning home to the United States after the end of the war in Vietnam experienced a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorder due in part to:
absence of social support
Although the "alarm reactions" experienced in both PTSD and panic disorder are very similar and result in conditioned responses, in panic disorder the alarm is:
false
In regard to the obsessions seen in patients with OCD, the term "need for symmetry" refers to:
keeping things in perfect order
What happens when persons with OCD attempt to neutralize or suppress disturbing, intrusive thoughts?
The frequency of the obsessive thoughts increases.
Overall it can be concluded that the combination of medical and psychological interventions for anxiety work:
only as well as the individual treatments
"I’ve got to get out of here right now, or I may not make it!" This statement is most likely to be said by someone experiencing a(n):
?????Lookup answer?????
According to the textbook, the experience of fear can be described
as a(n):
immediate emotional reaction to danger
Anxiety is thought to be a(n) ____ state while fear is more ____.
future oriented; immediate
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE…
30 terms
sander42 chapter 5 sample questions
123 terms
Ab Psych Chp 5
43 terms
Abnormal Psych Exam 2 chapter 4
79 terms
Abnormal Psychology Exam 2 (Ch. 5-8)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
179 terms
Spanish Vocab
58 terms
Second class
170 terms
19 Jun – 1st class
85 terms
Ethics
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH…
24 terms
Anxiety
25 terms
SomaticSymptom&RelatedDisorders&DissociativeDisorders
145 terms
abnormal psych 5,6,7
39 terms
SomaticSymptom,ETC

 
Search

Create
Log in Sign up

Log in Sign up

78 terms

annie_kullas

Psychopathology Chapter 4

STUDY

PLAY

c
Which of the following does NOT characterize the mood state known as anxiety?
a. Increased heart rate
b. Physical tension
c. euphoric mood
d. Subjective sense of unease
a
The alarm reaction to danger that is triggered by anxiety primarily involves the ________ nervous system.
a. autonomic
b. parasympathetic
c. peripheral
d. somatic
a
According to the textbook, the experience of fear can be described as a(n)
a. immediate alarm reaction to danger.
b. Irrational response.
c. neurotic response.
d. Culture-specific phenomenon.
d
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding anxiety?
a. Anxiety is an evolutionary flaw.
b. Anxiety used to have a function in our ancestors’ time, but is no longer relevant to modern humans
c. Anxiety is good for us because it enhances performance
d. Anxiety is sometimes good for us; it enhances performance to an extent, but too much of it can hinder performance too.
a
Hideki was attending his fifth baseball game at Condor Stadium, where he had previously had a panic attack. He did not know if he would have a panic attack today, but shortly after entering the stadium, he did. This type of panic attack is
a. situationally predisposed.
b. situationally bound.
c. cued.
d. uncued.
b
Which type of panic attack is most closely related to phobias?
a. Situationally predisposed
b. Situationally bound
c. Unexpected
d. Uncued
d
DSM criteria of panic attacks include all of the following symptoms EXCEPT
a. sweating.
b. Fear of losing control or going crazy.
c. trembling or shaking.
d. migraine headaches.
a
Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the heredity of anxiety?
a. An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight.
b. A single gene makes us vulnerable to anxiety.
c. Panic disorder does not run in families.
d. Environmental stress is the direct cause of panic disorder.
a
The area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the
a. limbic system.
b. pons.
c. occipital lobe.
d. medulla.
c
According to Jeffrey Gray, a British neuropsychologist, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is activated by danger signals ________, resulting in the experience of anxiety.
a. ascending from the brain stem
b. descending from the cortex
c. arising from both the brain stem and the cortex
d. within the amygdala only
b
According to research by Johnson et al., 2000, an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders was found among teenagers who
a. smoked marijuana.
b. smoked cigarettes.
c. drank alcohol.
d. used steroids.
a
Research by Barlow (2002) and others indicates that vulnerability to anxiety disorders is related to
a. one’s sense of control over environmental events.
b. the number of unexpected occurrences in one’s life.
c. the number of siblings in one’s family.
d. genetic or biological factors only.
c
Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
a. Fear
b. Panic
c. Worry
d. Emotion
d
In what way can worry be useful?
a. It helps us plan for the future.
b. It makes sure we are prepared for a task.
c. It makes us double check that we have thought of everything before leaving on a trip.
d. All of the above
d
All of the following are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) EXCEPT
a. muscle tension.
b. Susceptibility to fatigue..
c. insomnia.
d. hypersomnia.
c
Research studies have found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is most common among
a. young adult males.
b. teenaged girls.
c. adults over 45 years old.
d. the elderly.
a
Which physiological measure consistently distinguishes individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from nonanxious normal subjects?
a. Increased muscle tension
b. Increased heart rate
c. Decreased EEG beta activity
d. Decreased skin conductance levels
a
. For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the typical pharmacological treatment of choice has been the category of drugs known as
a. benzodiazepines.
b. SSRIs.
c. tricyclics.
d. MAO inhibitors.
b
In the early 1990s, Barlow and others developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that helps the patient
a. avoid feelings of anxiety as well as the negative images associated with those feelings.
b. confront anxiety-provoking thoughts and images.
c. adjust medication levels as needed to cope with the anxiety.
d. analyze the unconscious sources of the anxiety.
b
Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by
a. how recently the last panic attack occurred.
b. the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.
c. the number of panic attacks the person has had in the past.
d. how severe the panic attacks have been.
d
Panic disorder is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT?
a. severe, unexpected rushes of fear or discomfort
b. close relationship to agoraphobia
c. belief that one is going crazy or dying when suffering a panic attack
d. Preoccupation with minor daily events.
c
Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is
a. in REM sleep.
b. having a nightmare.
c. deeply asleep.
d. dreaming.
c
A teenage girl had recently been having panic attacks while shopping at the mall. She was sitting in her room feeling very depressed. To cheer her up, a friend suggested that they both go to an exercise class. Shortly after the warm-up started, however, she had another panic attack. What is the best explanation for this occurrence?
a. She was angry with the friend for insisting that she go out.
b. The sudden change in physiological arousal and mood triggered the panic attack.
c. The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur.
d. The exercise class was an unconditioned stimulus that resulted in a panic attack.
a
An individual who suffers from panic disorder might become anxious about climbing stairs, exercising, or being in hot rooms because these activities produce sensations similar to those accompanying a panic attack. In psychological terms, the exercise and hot rooms have become
a. conditioned stimuli.
b. unconditioned stimuli.
c. conditioned responses.
d. unconditioned responses.
c
In treating panic disorder, all of the following types of medications are used EXCEPT
a. tricyclic antidepressants.
b. SSRIs.
c. Steroids.
d. benzodiazepines.
a
What is one factor that distinguishes between traditional exposure-based treatments for panic disorder and the more recent panic control treatment (PCT) developed at one of Barlow’s clinics?
a. Exposure to the interoceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
b. Referral to a psychiatrist for medication monitoring
c. Traditional exposure-based treatments resulting in a higher rate of cures
d. As part of PCT, the therapist accompanying the patient on "reality testing" activities
d
Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow’s panic control treatment (PCT)?
a. Cognitive therapy to modify conscious or unconscious perceptions about the "dangerousness" of feared situations
b. Creation of mini panic attacks in the therapist’s office
c. Exercises to elevate the heart rate or spinning to make the patient dizzy
d. Reducing interfering memories from early experiences with frightening stimuli.
c
A relative of yours who suffers from panic disorder asks you what treatment would have the most long-lasting benefits. Since you have just read about the double-blind NIMH research study evaluating psychological treatments with and without medication, you tell your relative to first try
a. the drug imipramine.
b. psychological treatment along with medication.
c. panic control treatment that includes cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
d. any available treatment, since patients in all treatment conditions achieved the same long-lasting gains.
c
A friend stated that when she went to a clinic, she had to spend 30- to 60-second sessions shaking her head from side to side, spinning in a chair, tensing all her muscles, hyperventilating, or breathing through a narrow straw. She is most likely receiving treatment for
a. specific phobia.
b. social phobia.
c. panic disorder.
d. posttraumatic stress disorder.
d
All of the following are characteristics common to specific phobias EXCEPT
a. strong and persistent anxiety related to a specific object or situation.
b. significant attempts by the anxious individual to avoid the phobic situation.
c. recognition by the person with the phobia that the anxiety is excessive or unreasonable.
d. Chronically decreased arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
b
In the type of specific phobia called "blood-injury-injection," there is an inherited vasovagal response and a tendency to faint due to
a. an increase in blood pressure.
b. a decrease in blood pressure.
c. an increase in body temperature.
d. a decrease in body temperature.
d
Which of the following is NOT an example of a situational phobia?
a. Claustrophobia
b. Fear of flying
c. Fear of public buses
d. Snake phobia
a
The main difference between situational phobia and panic disorder (PD) is that
a. people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation.
b. people with situational phobia experience panic attacks when confronted with the phobic situation as well as at other times.
c. people with PD experience panic attacks only in specific situations.
d. people with PD experience panic attacks only at specific times.
b
According to your textbook, there are at least three ways of developing a phobia. Which is NOT one of these ways?
a. Experiencing a panic attack in a specific situation
b. Having a nightmare about a feared situation
c. Observing someone else experience severe fear
d. In certain conditions, being told about danger
a
You are told about a child who has shown behavior consistent with "separation anxiety." In order to determine if the child actually has a disorder or whether the behavior is normal, you would first need to know
a. the child’s age.
b. whether the child is a boy or a girl.
c. if other family members have anxiety disorders.
d. how long the child has shown this behavior.
a
The typical age of onset for both animal and natural environment phobias peaks at around ___ years.
a. 7
b. 9
c. 11
d. 13
c
Phobias characterized by fear of public transportation or enclosed places are called situational phobias, and the typical onset age for those who suffer from them is
a. childhood.
b. late adolescence.
c. early adulthood.
d. midlife.
d
A psychological disorder in children characterized by unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents, and that may result in refusal to leave home, is called
a. generalized anxiety disorder.
b. school phobia.
c. situational phobia.
d. separation anxiety.
b
In the general population, approximately ________ percent of people have specific fears severe enough to be diagnosed as phobias.
a. 1
b. 11
c. 31
d. 51
c
What is the role of parents in treating separation anxiety disorder?
a. Parents are instructed to separate themselves from the child for at least two weeks to expose him/her to the feared scenario
b. Parents are instructed to accommodate their child by reassuring them promptly each time he/she expressed separation fears
c. Parents can be coached real-time in how to respond appropriately to the child’s resistance to separation
d. Parents are not involved because the child must learn to independently solve their problems.
c
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the treatment of specific phobias?
a. Structured exposure-based exercises are no longer considered necessary.
b. Individuals with "blood" phobias must learn to relax their muscles to keep their blood pressure high enough to prevent fainting.
c. Exposure-based exercises actually change brain functioning.
d. Avoiding a phobic situation weakens the phobic response.
d
Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of social phobia?
a. A student who is reluctant to speak up in a classroom due to fear of embarrassing herself
b. A male who has difficulty urinating in a public restroom when others are present
c. A person who can only eat comfortably when he is alone
d. An individual who cannot travel on public transportation without a family member present
b
According to research as many as ________ percent of the general population suffer from social phobia at some point in their lives.
a. 3
b. 12
c. 23
d. 33
a
The most prevalent psychological disorder in the general population is
a. specific phobia.
b. agoraphobia.
c. social phobia.
d. panic disorder.
c
Unlike most of the anxiety disorders in which female sufferers predominate, the sex ratio is almost equal in
a. agoraphobia.
b. specific phobias.
c. social phobia.
d. panic disorder.
b
. The anxiety disorder called social phobia, involving anxiety about being evaluated or criticized, usually begins during
a. childhood.
b. adolescence.
c. young adulthood.
d. middle age.
b
Since 1999, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved all of the following medications for the treatment of social anxiety disorder EXCEPT
a. Zoloft.
b. Ritalin.
c. Effexor.
d. Paxil.
b
The setting for posttraumatic stress disorder to occur follows an experience accompanied by a triad of feelings, including all of the following EXCEPT
a. horror.
b. paranoia.
c. helplessness.
d. fear.
c
Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display a characteristic set of symptoms including all of the following EXCEPT
a. numbing of emotional responsiveness.
b. sudden "flashbacks" in which the traumatic event is relived.
c. decreased startle response and chronically decreased autonomic arousal
d. memories and nightmares of the event.
c
Following the 9/11/2001 attacks, among the sample of respondents who lived closest to the World Trade Center, the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was _________ percent.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 20
d. 25
d
Which of the following is an accurate statement about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
a. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed instead of PTSD if a person’s symptoms begin 6 months or more after the traumatic event.
b. PTSD occurs in all individuals who experience a traumatic event.
c. Most people diagnosed with acute stress disorder do not eventually develop PTSD.
d. A diagnosis of acute stress disorder will change to a diagnosis of PTSD one month after the traumatic event occurs.
c
The posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence rates of U.S. veterans returning home from the war in Vietnam was directly related to their

a. high rates of drug addiction.
b. youth and inexperience.
c. amount of combat exposure.
d. separation from family.

b
Which of the following is an accurate statement about factors affecting treatment for PTSD?
a. Victims of PTSD remember the traumatic events with perfect accuracy.
b. Victims of PTSD often repress memories of the traumatic event.
c. Re-exposure to the trauma should be accomplished quickly to assure the best therapeutic response.
d. PTSD patients should never be re-exposed to emotions and situations that remind them of the trauma event.
c
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is often accompanied by all of the following EXCEPT
a. severe generalized anxiety.
b. major depression.
c. visual hallucinations.
d. panic attacks.
a
Actions, or sometimes thoughts, that an individual with OCD uses to reduce anxiety are called
a. operants.
b. fixations.
c. habits.
d. rituals.
a
The compulsions that an individual with OCD uses to suppress disastrous consequences or ward off intrusive thoughts can be either
a. behavioral or mental.
b. positive or negative.
c. biological or psychological.
d. autonomic or somatic.
b
Which of the following would NOT be an example of an OCD-related behavioral compulsion?
a. Checking
b. Aggression
c. Hand washing
d. Ordering
c
Jenike, et al. (1986) found that the most common obsessions in a group of 100 patients were related to
a. aggression.
b. sex.
c. contamination.
d. symmetry.
b
. Regarding the obsessions seen in patients with OCD, the term "need for symmetry" refers to
a. doing something a number of different ways.
b. keeping things in perfect order.
c. putting everything on one’s right and nothing on the left, or vice versa.
d. an illusion of imbalance between sides of the body.
b
What element of OCD applies to Richard (the case described in the textbook), who was obsessed with the idea that if he did not eat in a certain ritualistic way, he would become possessed?
a. Need for symmetry
b. Magical thinking
c. Emotional reasoning.
d. Demonic obsessions
c
In the case of Richard, the patient with OCD described in the textbook, he was compelled to take very small steps as he walked and to look back repeatedly. As with other types of checking compulsions, Richard was trying to
a. restore a sense of safety and control.
b. reduce the possibility of contamination.
c. ward off an imagined disaster.
d. make sure he didn’t make a mistake.
c
Normal, ordinary people who have occasional intrusive thoughts with bizarre, sexual, or aggressive content would not be considered to have OCD. However, they would if they found the thoughts unacceptable or even dangerous and also
a. use alcohol or other drugs to reduce anxiety.
b. develop insomnia and nightmares.
c. become anxious about having further intrusive thoughts.
d. suffer from either posttraumatic stress disorder or social phobia.
b
A young child has thoughts about hating her younger brother and wishing he would die. She becomes very anxious about these thoughts because she has developed the idea that if anything really happened to him, it would be her fault. This pattern of thinking is called
a. neutralizing.
b. thought-action fusion.
c. thought suppression.
d. fundamental responsibility.
b
Tony has thoughts about hating his younger brother and wishing he would die. He becomes very anxious about these thoughts because he has developed the idea that if anything really happened to his brother, it would be his fault. For no explainable reason, Tony starts mentally counting by odd numbers each time he walks past his brother’s room and discovers that this activity makes him less anxious. Tony’s behavior can be described as
a. a phobia of going into his brother’s room because he is afraid his hatred will actually hurt him.
b. a mental compulsion developed to neutralize his bad thoughts.
c. an attempt to be better in math than his brother to gain parental acceptance.
d. a compulsive ritual designed to make him like his brother more.
b
What happens when people with OCD attempt to neutralize or suppress disturbing, intrusive thoughts?
a. The obsessive thoughts disappear
b. The frequency of the obsessive thoughts increases over time
c. The frequency of the obsessive thoughts decreases over time
d. This strategy has no effect on the obsessive thoughts
a
According to several cross-cultural research studies reported in the textbook, the prevalence of OCD is
a. very similar across cultures.
b. lower in European countries.
c. higher in African nations.
d. virtually nonexistent in some cultures.
c
According to research studies reported in the textbook, people with OCD who hold fundamentalist religious beliefs often present with
a. both checking and hoarding rituals.
b. a reduced sense of responsibility for their actions.
c. attitudes of inflated responsibility.
d. nonequivalence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions.
c
The model of the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the text suggests that in order for an individual to develop OCD, ________ must be present.
a. biological vulnerability
b. psychological vulnerability
c. both biological and psychological vulnerabilities
d. neither biological nor psychological vulnerabilities
a
Regarding pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder, the most effective drugs are those that inhibit the reuptake of the neurotransmitter called
a. serotonin.
b. dopamine.
c. noradrenaline.
d. epinephrine.
c
Regarding treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders, drugs that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin (SSRIs) have been found to be effective in approximately ________ percent of patients.
a. 10
b. 30
c. 60
d. 80
a
The behavioral process in which OCD patients are not permitted to carry out their compulsions while in the presence of the anxiety-producing stimulus or situation is called
a. exposure and response prevention.
b. Cognitive restructuring.
c. anxiety reduction therapy.
d. behavioral inhibition conditioning.
a
Which of the following is an example of the treatment technique for OCD called exposure and response prevention?
a. Carrie has an obsessive fear of contamination, which has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by making her touch dirty laundry but not allowing her to wash for increasingly longer periods of time afterward.
b. Kerry has an obsessive fear of contamination, which has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by forcing her to wash her hands repeatedly, even when she doesn’t feel anxious.
c. Kelly has religious obsessions. She feels that if she doesn’t read biblical passages every hour of the day, she will do something evil. Her therapist is treating her by having her attend religious services more frequently so that good thoughts will replace the bad ones.
d. Callie has a hoarding compulsion. She becomes anxious whenever she has to throw something away; she even keeps stuff that she doesn’t need and will never use. Her therapist has arranged for all Callie’s junk to be removed and discarded when she is away from home.
b
Research studies have shown that the therapeutic benefits of medication for OCD
a. are permanent.
b. are reduced when the medication is discontinued.
c. continue even when the drug is discontinued.
d. are no more effective than a placebo.
d
Research studies have shown that combining exposure and response prevention with medication when treating patients with OCD
a. is better than drug treatment alone.
b. is better than exposure and response prevention alone.
c. causes patients to discontinue treatment.
d. does not produce any additional therapeutic advantage.
d
According the textbook, treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder have included all of the following EXCEPT
a. medication.
b. exposure and response prevention.
c. psychosurgery.
d. Electro-shock therapy.
c
. Mr. J suffers from a severe case of obsessive-compulsive disorder. His symptoms have not responded to either medication or psychological therapies. As a last resort, his therapist suggests the possibility of a psychosurgical procedure, specifically an operation called
a. lobotomy.
b. lobectomy.
c. cingulotomy.
d. cingulectomy.
c
As a last resort, both a psychiatrist and a neurosurgeon have suggested to Ms. Z that a psychosurgical procedure called a cingulotomy might relieve her severe OCD symptoms. Ms. Z asks what the success rate has been for this operation. She is told that approximately ________ percent of patients benefited substantially.
a. 3
b. 13
c. 30
d. 53
a
Which type of compulsion has the highest prevalence rate?
a. Symmetry
b. Cleaning and contamination
c. Hoarding
d. Forbidden thoughts or actions
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE…
43 terms
Abnormal Psych Exam 2 chapter 4
123 terms
Ab Psych Chp 5
100 terms
PS280 Practice Test for chapter 5
30 terms
PSYC 302- Ch 5 Quiz
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
86 terms
medical abbreviations
19 terms
Motivation Chapter 10
22 terms
Motivation Chapter 8
24 terms
Motivation Chapter 7
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH…
58 terms
Chapter 8: Sleeping and Eating Disorders
13 terms
Quiz 6
152 terms
PSY 240 Chapter 10 – Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
49 terms
Veterinary Pharmacology – Chapter 4: Pharmacokinetics

11 Signs You Have A Panic Disorder

By Carina Wolff

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

Panic attacks are stressful, scary, and can be difficult to deal with. Some people get them just once in awhile, but others experience them frequently, and this could indicate a panic disorder. If you’re someone who finds that you experience panic-like symptoms often, you may be exhibiting some signs of panic disorder , an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring, unexpected panic attacks. About two to three percent of Americans experience panic disorder in a given year, and it is twice as common in women than in men, according to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA).

"Panic disorder is an actual mental health diagnosis as defined by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (the bedrock of the diagnostic mental health community)," Annie Wright, LMFT of Evergreen Counseling tells Bustle. "A panic disorder is treatable, and those that are dealing with this , or believe they may be dealing with this, would be advised to seek out psychotherapy and/or talk to their primary care doctor about this."

If you feel like your life has been affected by panic attacks , you may be affected by panic disorder. Here are 11 signs that you may indicate that you have panic disorder, according to experts.

1You Have A History Of Recurrent Panic Attacks

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

In order to be diagnosed with panic disorder , you must experience frequent panic attacks. "One or two panic attacks does not qualify for a diagnosis of panic disorder," Nancy Irwin, Psy.D., Primary Therapist at Seasons in Malibu , tells Bustle. "Rather, this diagnosis is based on: a history of recurring panic attacks, and a lingering fear of dread of the next one." The disorder is differentiated from social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), agoraphobia, or other fears/phobias, and it is also differentiated from the symptoms listed above that are due to substance abuse or another medical condition.

2You Experience Heart Palpitations

Ashley Batz/Bustle

There are a number of symptoms that constitute a panic attack, and heart palpitations is one of them. "You catch your heart pounding, racing, or generally beating at a highly accelerated rate when you’re not exercising or doing an activity that would otherwise account for a high heart rate," says Wright. Of course elevated heart rate is something you should always speak to your doctor about, but if you believe it’s due to panic disorder, it may be best to speak to a therapist as well.

3You Have Shortness Of Breath

Hannah Burton/Bustle

Another common symptom of a panic attack is shortness of breath or a sense of being smothered. "You find it hard to take deep, even breaths and experience a restriction in your breathing capacities when there is no external reason for this," says Wright.

4You Get An Upset Stomach

Hannah Burton/Bustle

An additional indicator of a panic attack is upset stomach. "You experience nausea, irritable bowels , or general discomfort in your stomach and intestinal area that cannot be better accounted for (say, with food poisoning)," says Wright. Once again, if you are experiencing these symptoms, seeking professional help can prevent them from taking over.

5You Feel Dizzy Or Lightheaded

Ashley Batz/Bustle

Feeling dizzy or lightheaded is another sign of a panic attack. "You feel the room spin around or experience a general sense of lightheadedness at different times, with no known physical reason for this," says Wright.

6You Get Body Chills

Voyagerix/fotolia

Finally, when experiencing a panic attack, you might also get body chills. "You experience what might seem like hot flashes or the sudden onset of chills with no correlation to what’s happening in your external environment," says Wright. There are additional symptoms to panic attacks, but according to Wright, these are the most common among her clients.

7You Live In Fear Of Panic Attacks

Ashley Batz/Bustle

In addition to experiencing panic attacks, people with panic disorder also live in increased fear of getting panic attacks. "Individuals may have concern or worry about additional panic attacks or their consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack)," Talkspace therapist Dr. Rachel O’Neill, LPCC tells Bustle. "They begin to fear that a future panic attack will happen and that they will experience a consequence like being embarrassed around friends and family."

8You Engage In Behaviors To Avoid Panic Attacks

Ashley Batz/Bustle

"Oftentimes, someone with panic disorder will engage in behaviors to avoid having another panic attack," psychotherapist Alisa Kamis-Brinda, LCSW, LCADC tells Bustle. "This may include avoiding situations in which they think that they will have another panic attack or avoiding things like exercise that they think will trigger a panic attack."

9You Have Agoraphobia

Hannah Burton/Bustle

Someone with panic disorder may also experience agoraphobia, which is fear of two or more of the following: public transportation, being in open spaces, being in enclosed spaces, standing in line or being in a crowd, and being outside of the home alone. "These situations are feared due to belief that escape might be difficult or help might not be available if they experience a panic attack," says Kamis-Brinda. "These fears often lead to avoidance of the feared situation, only being in the feared situation with a support person, or enduring the feared situation with high levels of anxiety."

10You Get Panic Attacks In Your Sleep

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

As if daytime panic attacks weren’t bad enough, when you have panic disorder, panic attacks can also occur while you sleep. "Some individuals experience a nocturnal panic attack, in which they will awaken from a sleep state in a complete state of panic," says Dr. O’Neill.

11You Fear Health Concerns

Andrew Zaeh for Bustle

If you frequently experience fear or concern related to health and mental health concerns, it could be a result of your panic disorder. "Individuals with panic disorder often worry about their physical health concerns and may believe that physical symptoms, like headaches, are reflective of a larger medical concern, for example, a tumor," says Dr. O’Neill.

If you experience these symptoms, you may have panic disorder. Treatment is possible, so be sure to see a doctor or therapist if you find yourself having frequent panic attacks.