b. finger temperature
c. muscle tension
d. stomach contractions <<<correct>>>>
b. paranoia <<<<correct>>>>
b. sudden "flashbacks" in which the traumatic event is relived
c. decreased startle response and chronic under-arousal <<<<correct>>>>
d. memories and nightmares of the event
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Psychopathology Chapter 4
a. Increased heart rate
b. Physical tension
c. euphoric mood
d. Subjective sense of unease
a. immediate alarm reaction to danger.
b. Irrational response.
c. neurotic response.
d. Culture-specific phenomenon.
a. Anxiety is an evolutionary flaw.
b. Anxiety used to have a function in our ancestors’ time, but is no longer relevant to modern humans
c. Anxiety is good for us because it enhances performance
d. Anxiety is sometimes good for us; it enhances performance to an extent, but too much of it can hinder performance too.
a. situationally predisposed.
b. situationally bound.
a. Situationally predisposed
b. Situationally bound
b. Fear of losing control or going crazy.
c. trembling or shaking.
d. migraine headaches.
a. An inherited tendency can make us tense or uptight.
b. A single gene makes us vulnerable to anxiety.
c. Panic disorder does not run in families.
d. Environmental stress is the direct cause of panic disorder.
a. limbic system.
c. occipital lobe.
a. ascending from the brain stem
b. descending from the cortex
c. arising from both the brain stem and the cortex
d. within the amygdala only
a. smoked marijuana.
b. smoked cigarettes.
c. drank alcohol.
d. used steroids.
a. one’s sense of control over environmental events.
b. the number of unexpected occurrences in one’s life.
c. the number of siblings in one’s family.
d. genetic or biological factors only.
a. It helps us plan for the future.
b. It makes sure we are prepared for a task.
c. It makes us double check that we have thought of everything before leaving on a trip.
d. All of the above
a. muscle tension.
b. Susceptibility to fatigue..
a. young adult males.
b. teenaged girls.
c. adults over 45 years old.
d. the elderly.
a. Increased muscle tension
b. Increased heart rate
c. Decreased EEG beta activity
d. Decreased skin conductance levels
d. MAO inhibitors.
a. avoid feelings of anxiety as well as the negative images associated with those feelings.
b. confront anxiety-provoking thoughts and images.
c. adjust medication levels as needed to cope with the anxiety.
d. analyze the unconscious sources of the anxiety.
a. how recently the last panic attack occurred.
b. the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.
c. the number of panic attacks the person has had in the past.
d. how severe the panic attacks have been.
a. severe, unexpected rushes of fear or discomfort
b. close relationship to agoraphobia
c. belief that one is going crazy or dying when suffering a panic attack
d. Preoccupation with minor daily events.
a. in REM sleep.
b. having a nightmare.
c. deeply asleep.
a. She was angry with the friend for insisting that she go out.
b. The sudden change in physiological arousal and mood triggered the panic attack.
c. The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur.
d. The exercise class was an unconditioned stimulus that resulted in a panic attack.
a. conditioned stimuli.
b. unconditioned stimuli.
c. conditioned responses.
d. unconditioned responses.
a. tricyclic antidepressants.
a. Exposure to the interoceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
b. Referral to a psychiatrist for medication monitoring
c. Traditional exposure-based treatments resulting in a higher rate of cures
d. As part of PCT, the therapist accompanying the patient on "reality testing" activities
a. Cognitive therapy to modify conscious or unconscious perceptions about the "dangerousness" of feared situations
b. Creation of mini panic attacks in the therapist’s office
c. Exercises to elevate the heart rate or spinning to make the patient dizzy
d. Reducing interfering memories from early experiences with frightening stimuli.
a. the drug imipramine.
b. psychological treatment along with medication.
c. panic control treatment that includes cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
d. any available treatment, since patients in all treatment conditions achieved the same long-lasting gains.
a. specific phobia.
b. social phobia.
c. panic disorder.
d. posttraumatic stress disorder.
a. strong and persistent anxiety related to a specific object or situation.
b. significant attempts by the anxious individual to avoid the phobic situation.
c. recognition by the person with the phobia that the anxiety is excessive or unreasonable.
d. Chronically decreased arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
a. an increase in blood pressure.
b. a decrease in blood pressure.
c. an increase in body temperature.
d. a decrease in body temperature.
b. Fear of flying
c. Fear of public buses
d. Snake phobia
a. people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation.
b. people with situational phobia experience panic attacks when confronted with the phobic situation as well as at other times.
c. people with PD experience panic attacks only in specific situations.
d. people with PD experience panic attacks only at specific times.
a. Experiencing a panic attack in a specific situation
b. Having a nightmare about a feared situation
c. Observing someone else experience severe fear
d. In certain conditions, being told about danger
a. the child’s age.
b. whether the child is a boy or a girl.
c. if other family members have anxiety disorders.
d. how long the child has shown this behavior.
b. late adolescence.
c. early adulthood.
a. generalized anxiety disorder.
b. school phobia.
c. situational phobia.
d. separation anxiety.
a. Parents are instructed to separate themselves from the child for at least two weeks to expose him/her to the feared scenario
b. Parents are instructed to accommodate their child by reassuring them promptly each time he/she expressed separation fears
c. Parents can be coached real-time in how to respond appropriately to the child’s resistance to separation
d. Parents are not involved because the child must learn to independently solve their problems.
a. Structured exposure-based exercises are no longer considered necessary.
b. Individuals with "blood" phobias must learn to relax their muscles to keep their blood pressure high enough to prevent fainting.
c. Exposure-based exercises actually change brain functioning.
d. Avoiding a phobic situation weakens the phobic response.
a. A student who is reluctant to speak up in a classroom due to fear of embarrassing herself
b. A male who has difficulty urinating in a public restroom when others are present
c. A person who can only eat comfortably when he is alone
d. An individual who cannot travel on public transportation without a family member present
a. specific phobia.
c. social phobia.
d. panic disorder.
b. specific phobias.
c. social phobia.
d. panic disorder.
c. young adulthood.
d. middle age.
a. numbing of emotional responsiveness.
b. sudden "flashbacks" in which the traumatic event is relived.
c. decreased startle response and chronically decreased autonomic arousal
d. memories and nightmares of the event.
a. Acute stress disorder is diagnosed instead of PTSD if a person’s symptoms begin 6 months or more after the traumatic event.
b. PTSD occurs in all individuals who experience a traumatic event.
c. Most people diagnosed with acute stress disorder do not eventually develop PTSD.
d. A diagnosis of acute stress disorder will change to a diagnosis of PTSD one month after the traumatic event occurs.
a. high rates of drug addiction.
b. youth and inexperience.
c. amount of combat exposure.
d. separation from family.
a. Victims of PTSD remember the traumatic events with perfect accuracy.
b. Victims of PTSD often repress memories of the traumatic event.
c. Re-exposure to the trauma should be accomplished quickly to assure the best therapeutic response.
d. PTSD patients should never be re-exposed to emotions and situations that remind them of the trauma event.
a. severe generalized anxiety.
b. major depression.
c. visual hallucinations.
d. panic attacks.
a. behavioral or mental.
b. positive or negative.
c. biological or psychological.
d. autonomic or somatic.
c. Hand washing
a. doing something a number of different ways.
b. keeping things in perfect order.
c. putting everything on one’s right and nothing on the left, or vice versa.
d. an illusion of imbalance between sides of the body.
a. Need for symmetry
b. Magical thinking
c. Emotional reasoning.
d. Demonic obsessions
a. restore a sense of safety and control.
b. reduce the possibility of contamination.
c. ward off an imagined disaster.
d. make sure he didn’t make a mistake.
a. use alcohol or other drugs to reduce anxiety.
b. develop insomnia and nightmares.
c. become anxious about having further intrusive thoughts.
d. suffer from either posttraumatic stress disorder or social phobia.
b. thought-action fusion.
c. thought suppression.
d. fundamental responsibility.
a. a phobia of going into his brother’s room because he is afraid his hatred will actually hurt him.
b. a mental compulsion developed to neutralize his bad thoughts.
c. an attempt to be better in math than his brother to gain parental acceptance.
d. a compulsive ritual designed to make him like his brother more.
a. The obsessive thoughts disappear
b. The frequency of the obsessive thoughts increases over time
c. The frequency of the obsessive thoughts decreases over time
d. This strategy has no effect on the obsessive thoughts
a. very similar across cultures.
b. lower in European countries.
c. higher in African nations.
d. virtually nonexistent in some cultures.
a. both checking and hoarding rituals.
b. a reduced sense of responsibility for their actions.
c. attitudes of inflated responsibility.
d. nonequivalence of obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions.
a. biological vulnerability
b. psychological vulnerability
c. both biological and psychological vulnerabilities
d. neither biological nor psychological vulnerabilities
a. exposure and response prevention.
b. Cognitive restructuring.
c. anxiety reduction therapy.
d. behavioral inhibition conditioning.
a. Carrie has an obsessive fear of contamination, which has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by making her touch dirty laundry but not allowing her to wash for increasingly longer periods of time afterward.
b. Kerry has an obsessive fear of contamination, which has led to compulsive hand-washing rituals. Her therapist is treating her by forcing her to wash her hands repeatedly, even when she doesn’t feel anxious.
c. Kelly has religious obsessions. She feels that if she doesn’t read biblical passages every hour of the day, she will do something evil. Her therapist is treating her by having her attend religious services more frequently so that good thoughts will replace the bad ones.
d. Callie has a hoarding compulsion. She becomes anxious whenever she has to throw something away; she even keeps stuff that she doesn’t need and will never use. Her therapist has arranged for all Callie’s junk to be removed and discarded when she is away from home.
a. are permanent.
b. are reduced when the medication is discontinued.
c. continue even when the drug is discontinued.
d. are no more effective than a placebo.
a. is better than drug treatment alone.
b. is better than exposure and response prevention alone.
c. causes patients to discontinue treatment.
d. does not produce any additional therapeutic advantage.
b. exposure and response prevention.
d. Electro-shock therapy.
b. Cleaning and contamination
d. Forbidden thoughts or actions
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11 Signs You Have A Panic Disorder
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
Panic attacks are stressful, scary, and can be difficult to deal with. Some people get them just once in awhile, but others experience them frequently, and this could indicate a panic disorder. If you’re someone who finds that you experience panic-like symptoms often, you may be exhibiting some signs of panic disorder , an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring, unexpected panic attacks. About two to three percent of Americans experience panic disorder in a given year, and it is twice as common in women than in men, according to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA).
"Panic disorder is an actual mental health diagnosis as defined by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (the bedrock of the diagnostic mental health community)," Annie Wright, LMFT of Evergreen Counseling tells Bustle. "A panic disorder is treatable, and those that are dealing with this , or believe they may be dealing with this, would be advised to seek out psychotherapy and/or talk to their primary care doctor about this."
If you feel like your life has been affected by panic attacks , you may be affected by panic disorder. Here are 11 signs that you may indicate that you have panic disorder, according to experts.
1You Have A History Of Recurrent Panic Attacks
In order to be diagnosed with panic disorder , you must experience frequent panic attacks. "One or two panic attacks does not qualify for a diagnosis of panic disorder," Nancy Irwin, Psy.D., Primary Therapist at Seasons in Malibu , tells Bustle. "Rather, this diagnosis is based on: a history of recurring panic attacks, and a lingering fear of dread of the next one." The disorder is differentiated from social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), agoraphobia, or other fears/phobias, and it is also differentiated from the symptoms listed above that are due to substance abuse or another medical condition.
2You Experience Heart Palpitations
There are a number of symptoms that constitute a panic attack, and heart palpitations is one of them. "You catch your heart pounding, racing, or generally beating at a highly accelerated rate when you’re not exercising or doing an activity that would otherwise account for a high heart rate," says Wright. Of course elevated heart rate is something you should always speak to your doctor about, but if you believe it’s due to panic disorder, it may be best to speak to a therapist as well.
3You Have Shortness Of Breath
Another common symptom of a panic attack is shortness of breath or a sense of being smothered. "You find it hard to take deep, even breaths and experience a restriction in your breathing capacities when there is no external reason for this," says Wright.
4You Get An Upset Stomach
An additional indicator of a panic attack is upset stomach. "You experience nausea, irritable bowels , or general discomfort in your stomach and intestinal area that cannot be better accounted for (say, with food poisoning)," says Wright. Once again, if you are experiencing these symptoms, seeking professional help can prevent them from taking over.
5You Feel Dizzy Or Lightheaded
Feeling dizzy or lightheaded is another sign of a panic attack. "You feel the room spin around or experience a general sense of lightheadedness at different times, with no known physical reason for this," says Wright.
6You Get Body Chills
Finally, when experiencing a panic attack, you might also get body chills. "You experience what might seem like hot flashes or the sudden onset of chills with no correlation to what’s happening in your external environment," says Wright. There are additional symptoms to panic attacks, but according to Wright, these are the most common among her clients.
7You Live In Fear Of Panic Attacks
In addition to experiencing panic attacks, people with panic disorder also live in increased fear of getting panic attacks. "Individuals may have concern or worry about additional panic attacks or their consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack)," Talkspace therapist Dr. Rachel O’Neill, LPCC tells Bustle. "They begin to fear that a future panic attack will happen and that they will experience a consequence like being embarrassed around friends and family."
8You Engage In Behaviors To Avoid Panic Attacks
"Oftentimes, someone with panic disorder will engage in behaviors to avoid having another panic attack," psychotherapist Alisa Kamis-Brinda, LCSW, LCADC tells Bustle. "This may include avoiding situations in which they think that they will have another panic attack or avoiding things like exercise that they think will trigger a panic attack."
9You Have Agoraphobia
Someone with panic disorder may also experience agoraphobia, which is fear of two or more of the following: public transportation, being in open spaces, being in enclosed spaces, standing in line or being in a crowd, and being outside of the home alone. "These situations are feared due to belief that escape might be difficult or help might not be available if they experience a panic attack," says Kamis-Brinda. "These fears often lead to avoidance of the feared situation, only being in the feared situation with a support person, or enduring the feared situation with high levels of anxiety."
10You Get Panic Attacks In Your Sleep
As if daytime panic attacks weren’t bad enough, when you have panic disorder, panic attacks can also occur while you sleep. "Some individuals experience a nocturnal panic attack, in which they will awaken from a sleep state in a complete state of panic," says Dr. O’Neill.
11You Fear Health Concerns
If you frequently experience fear or concern related to health and mental health concerns, it could be a result of your panic disorder. "Individuals with panic disorder often worry about their physical health concerns and may believe that physical symptoms, like headaches, are reflective of a larger medical concern, for example, a tumor," says Dr. O’Neill.
If you experience these symptoms, you may have panic disorder. Treatment is possible, so be sure to see a doctor or therapist if you find yourself having frequent panic attacks.